are we "Electrocuting "marine life?

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are we "Electrocuting "marine life?

Postby sam ford 2 » Sun May 21, 2006 9:55 am

released april 2006<br><br>north america generates ac power at 60 cycles per second @ 120v whereas europe and others use 50 cycles per second @ 220v as a time base.<br>-------due to the out of sync/phase difference it would be possible -------<br>to have north america on a positive maximum voltage and europe/others on a negative maximum voltage which would create a constantly repeating low frequency voltage difference between these systems of approximately 340 volts and all in between.<br>added to this difference would be all manner of surges/spikes/hi frequency transients common on industrial power lines. sometimes for a microsecond- values of thousands of volts!<br>what current comes from the generators into some ac loads normally goes back via wiring to the generating station to complete the circuit -a closed loop -however it is not uncommon for some of the return path to be via grounded connections ,either intentional or not, with the return current flowing thru the earth!.these sitse cover this topic very thoroughly<br><br>GROUND RETURNS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>STRAY GROUND CURRENTS- <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>here's reference to a similar effect as found in boating marinas with shore based AC connections<br><br>MARINE GROUND FAULT ISOLATION- <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br><br>this voltage difference between the generating systems is connected (via grounded connections) to the earth which then becomes a conductor of current between the continents.<br>a closed electrical circuit!<br>research from geological/oil exploration studies show that seawater has a resistivity hundreds to thousands times less than the other paths of conductivity thru the earth's surface crust as presently explored/ has the lowest value by far!<br>EARTH CONDUCTIVITIES- <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>water with its ability to dissolve anything has a major effect in the conductivity of subsurface geology!<br>it is the earth's /natures "organic wiring"<br>current divides through a" path"as to ohms law but prefers/takes/seeks the path of least resistance.<br>more current flows thru a lower resistance.some current might find it "easier" to travel thru the oceans under the influence of this electromotive force /potential difference between the continents rather than return to its generated source??<br>some "leakage"electrical current therefore could be conducted thru seawater between the many generating plants worldwide driven by this alternating potential difference?<br>seawater's prescense in the geology can be found miles inland from the coastal areas.<br>SALT WATER INTRUSION - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>14 of the worlds 19 megacities are located on coastal plains!<br>3/4 the earth's surface is covered by seawater.<br><br>seawater is not the same as a beaker of sodium chloride in a laboratory<br>SEAWATER - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>together there are over 100 minerals composed of 80 chemical elements. The composition of crystal of ocean salt is so complicated that no laboratory in the world can produce it from its basic 80 chemical elements.<br>SALINTY BASICS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>WHY THE SEA IS SALT - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>it is similar to our blood and is ideal for electrical activity and chemical reaction!<br>it is full of micro organism's/bacteria/etc.--life !bio-electric life<br><br>DEEP SEAWATER ORGANISMS -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>SEAWATER AND ITS DIVERSITY OF MICRO ORGANISM'S -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>it is a soup of life !it has a measured life force<br>NATURES LIFE FORCE - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>the distribution of electrical current density can be influenced/controlled by the differences in salinity/temperature layers/ocean currents flowing thru the earths fluctuating natural magnetic field??<br>SALINITY DRIVEN OCEAN CIRCULATION - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>SALINITY AND CONDUCTIVITY - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>TEMPERATURE,SALINITY&DENSITY -<br><br>SALINITY VERSUS DEPTH - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>this could create a continual alternating flow of current( by ionic conduction or electrical conduction)---<br><br>could the continually alternating movement of large ions act as a "battering ram" within the cells of marine line?<br>zaps--/buzzzzz's/--hummm throughout the oceans between the numerous different land based generating systems due to the conductive nature of seawater ?<br>this is totally unnatural to what the rythm of sun/earth/cosmos have created and which life has evolved in ?<br><br>could the strength of this possible" leakage "electrical current or voltage gradiant be detrimental to somewhere in the marine food chain. (whether or not its strength is considered significant by human standards)<br>all life is bioelectric by design!commonly measured cell voltages are less than 100- millivolts<br>the amount of current flowing thru the oceans would be a function of the resistance between the worlds generating systems and the potential difference "driving" it.<br>low amperage current -500ma at 12vdc -thru seawater has been demonstated as effective in destroying microorganism's in seawater for aquaculture purposes with as yet unexplainable reasons as to why??<br>INACTIVATION OF BACTERIA IN SEAWATER - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>here's reference to experiments with 0.2 amps and findings of a a major change in the ph of the seawater<br>pH CHANGES IN RESEARCH TANK FROM LOW-CURRENTS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>some more research using low amperage ac current used to destroy seawater bacteria<br><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>STRAY VOLTAGES AND SALT WATER AQUARIUMS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>research using hi voltage pulses and their destructive effects on micro-life cell membranes<br>EFFECTS OF ALTERNATING CURRENTS ON MICRO-ORGANISMS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>......"results indicate that low-amperage electric treatment is effective for rapid inactivation of microorganisms in seawater".<br>INACTIVATION OF MARINE MICRO-ORGANISMS WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>these articles make reference to artificial control of fish for commercial reasons using electric fields<br>ANSWERS ABOUT ELECTRIC FISHING - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>the effects of electric impulses on growth of mangorove seedlings in seawater.<br>THE EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC IMPULSES ON SEEDLING GROWTH - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>an article on the effects of an electric field being used to stun fish<br>ELECTRIC STUNNING OF FISH - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--> welfare/jeff/conductivity.pdf+seawater+electric&hl=en&gl=ca&ct=clnk&cd=43<br>could this have an the effect on the ocean's phytoplankton and their ability the ability to regulate the climate??<br>ROLE OF PHYTOPLANKTON ON THE EARTH'S CLIMATE -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>MARINE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY'S ROLE IN CLIMATE CONTROL DISCUSSIONS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--> of oxygen /<br><br>with this unnatural artificial pulsating electrical current flow there is the creation of a pulsating electromagnetic field.<br>inductance effects can also be created in the subsurface geology from the flow of current there depending on the magnetic susceptibility of such<br>SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF ROCKS AND MINERALS -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>capacitance effects can also be present.these create frequency related electrical effects such as LCR resonance/filtering /etc. which generate harmonics-pulses ,etc!<br><br>what effect would the prescense of micro organisms bioelectrical circuitry have in this equation?<br><br>magnetohydrodynamics effects could becreated from this artificially induced current<br>OCEAN MHD DISCUSSIONS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>THE INTERACTION OF MOVING CONDUCTING FLUIDS WITH MAGNETIC/ELECTRICAL FIELDS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>THE DYNAMICS OF ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUIDS -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>could this flow of artificial electrical current find its way into the natural paths of telluric currents and stir things up????.natural loops are thought to be centered around the area where north american hurricanes are created!see this for info<br><br>THE EARTH'S ELECTRICAL ENVIRONMENT - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>SUBTERRANEAN ELECTRIC CURRENTS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>seawater is an electrolyte.<br>could a flow of this artificial electrical current driven by hundreds of volts cause electrolytic effects with production of its byproducts?<br><br>this voltage gradient across this distance may seem small from a human perspective but at the scale of a cell membrane may cause problems??<br>this process is used in an experiment to precipitate minerals to artificilly constuct a reef with low current dc<br>ELECTROLYSIS EFFECTS USED TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL REEFS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--> for Corals in Peril.htm<br>hydrogen can be produced from seawater with less than 2 volts under certain conditions<br>ELECTROLYSIS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>electrolysis has been used to produce NaOCl from seawater which has a demonstated ability to kill marine micro-life<br><br>ARTICLE ON ELECTROLYSIS EFFECTS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>in a simplistic way could the ocean could be seen as a big tank full of seawater with the ground of new york as its anode and the ground london/durban/sydney//hong kong/los angeles etc as its cathode<br><br>or<br><br>as a simmering pot of biological soup!<br><br>here's reference to conductivity increases in the prescense of weak electrical currents and "ohmic heating" in saline solutions of low concentration<br><br>OHMIC HEATING - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>could this alternating electrical current have an electrolytic effect on the decline of ocean salinity as noted in this report<br>ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE-MAJOR DECLINE IN SALINITY -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>the concept of a living earth and the dependence/creation of its natural electrical system is covered here<br>THE LIVING COSMOS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>a low frequency current pulsation creates low frequency electromagnetic energy.<br><br>ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSMISSION THRU SEAWATER -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>it has been demonstrated that some known marine life are extremely sensitive to low frequency electromagnetic energy and depend on it for guidance/communication/etc.<br><br>VERY LOW FREQUENCY NATURAL RADIO - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSING<br>-<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>"within the frequency range of direct current up to about eight hertz (cycles per second), sharks respond to fields of voltage gradients as low as a hundred-millionth of a volt per centimetre. That would be equivalent to the field of a flashlight battery connected to electrodes spaced 1000 miles [1600 km] apart in the ocean'! This remarkable electrical sensitivity is greater than that possessed by any other animal investigated so far"<br>THE SHARKS REMARKABLE SENSES - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>this frequency range is also in the realm of schuman resonaces---natures bio-clock<br>SCHUMANN RESONANCES - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br>a very low frequency electromagnetic "signal" is transmittable thru deep seawater. marine life has evolved using this as a means!<br>the military has found the same frequency range suitable for its underwater submarine communications.<br>ELFRAD - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>COMMUNICATION WITH SUBMARINES - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>a database of known research on the effects of artificial electromagnetic radiation on biology can be found here--<br>EMF DATABASE - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>EMF LINKS - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>there is often reference that adverse effects are stronger in embryonic or the developing stages of life!there are frequency dependent windows of cellular effects!health problems like cancers ,don't manifest until years later!micro is often more potent than macro!<br><br>here is a 1995 report on the unkown effects accompanying hi- DC voltage seabed cabling with a current return thru seawater-encompassing pretty much all of the above .<br>ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A SEABED CABLE-SWEDEEN 1995 REPORT - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SEA BED CABLING - <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>PROBLEMS FOR THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT USING MONOPOLAR TRANSMISSION -<!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href=""></a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>and all the unkowns of the LONG TERM effects are yet to be defined!<br><br>this has been presented to you as a question and is by no means the total .it is subject to evaluation by those with the knowledge to answer some of these is hoped that this will spur your thoughts on this question in search of an answer !<br><br>the article which follows below (which i had received) also outlines their lab/research findings along these lines.<br><br>-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br>a recent post as noted above<br>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br>><br>><br>Long Island Power Authority (LIPA)<br>> has proposed, which would generate electricity in such a way as to necessitate<br>> the transmission of large loads of high energy electricity on the seabed.<br>><br>> As you will read, such a technology raises genuine questions about the effect<br>> upon sea life. While I believe this project would not be the first to utilize seabed<br>> transmission of electricity -- it is fair to ask (as Reba does): Do we really<br>> know what the risks are ... in such a project, or in this technology???<br>><br>><br>><br>> ********************************************************************<br>><br>> Richard L. Tomer, Chief<br>><br>> U.S. Army Corps of Engineers<br>><br>> New York District<br>><br>> ATTN. Regulatory Branch, LIPA Offshore Wind Park Application<br>><br>> Jacob Javits Building<br>><br>> New York, NY 10278-0090 August 9, 2005<br>><br>><br>><br>><br>><br>> Dear Chief Tomer;<br>><br>> I am a molecular biologist and professor in the Pathology Department at Columbia University. My area of expertise is, and has been, for more than 25 years, the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on cells, tissues and whole animals. Our experiments have used field strengths from 60Hz up to Giga Hertz. We have published widely in such journals as Science and Journal of Cellular Biochemistry.<br>><br>> I tell you all this because it has come to my attention that LIPA has made application for installation of an offshore wind energy generating facility and submarine electric cables. This strikes me as extremely dangerous and foolish in the face of the impact such an installation will have on the ocean waters and the animal and plant life that are contained therein. From our work we know that even 8micraTesla magnetic fields and 20 minutes, changes in gene expression. Examples of genes upregulated are pre-cancer genes c-myc, c-src and c-fos and genes associated with the stress response, hsps.<br>><br>> Waters containing plant and animal wild life will be seriously affected by the electric cables and their emissions. Genetic mutations are bound to occur quickly as the evolutionary balance of these organisms will be severely altered and such mutations will , in my opinion, lead to lethality and the death of these waters and the life that they contain. A vast stagnant swamp may be left after not many years and the entire area could be blighted.<br>><br>> I ask that much more scientific investigation be done before any such installation is even thought of. You must get a group of marine biologists, population geneticists, molecular biologist and microbiologists as well as physicists to assess what looks to me like an ecological disaster in the making.<br>><br>> Sincerely yours<br>><br>> Reba Goodman PhD<br> <p></p><i></i>
sam ford 2
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Re: are we "Electrocuting "marine life?

Postby Dreams End » Sun May 21, 2006 8:17 pm

Is this all YOUR research, Sam? I don't mean the actual studies, but gathering all these articles? Amazing work. For now, I take your summaries at face value as I don't have time to hit those links, but I'd never thought of this before. The difference in voltage in the two continents seems less of a likely source of harm as I doubt that little voltage differential across such a long distance could make it. But I don't even rule that out...who knows what even slight electrical inputs could do?<br><br>Meanwhile, all the big leakages and just general accumulation of various grounded currents all over the place. It had never occurred to me. Usually, I hope, grounded is just that as earth isn't very conductive. But seaside areas or areas near groundwater..<br><br>I say only half tongue in cheek, could THIS be what the crop circles are warning us about? (They seem to show up around underground England anyway.)<br><br> <p></p><i></i>
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