Surveillance

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U.S. Federal Government Contractors | from top 42 of 200

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:00 am

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On wiki as of 2010, below are 30 entities from the top 42 of 200 U.S. Federal Government Contractors that do not necessarily apply or limit accountabilities and responsibilities to these keywords: defense, military, weapons, nuclear, nuclear weapons, aerospace, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, data, data privacy, communications, communications integration, telecommunications, trucks, vehicles, technology, consulting, security, national security, engineering, construction, satellite, infrastructure, protection.

If the descriptors I was looking for weren’t apparent, I found them within Wikipedia, and [put them in brackets, so you’d know].

1 Lockheed Martin Corporation (NYSE: LMT)
Aerospace and Defense

2 The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA)
Aerospace and Defense

3 Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC)
Aerospace and Defense

4 General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD)
Defense

5 Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN)
Aerospace and Defense

6 United Technologies Corporation (NYSE: UTX)
Conglomerate [defense]

7 L-3 Communications Holdings Inc. (NYSE: LLL)
Communications and Defense

8 Oshkosh Truck Corporation (NYSE: OSK)
Trucks and Vehicles [defense]

9 SAIC Inc. (NYSE: SAI)
Technology and Defense

10 BAE Systems plc (LSE: BA.)
Aerospace and Defense

13 Computer Sciences Corporation (NYSE: CSC)
IT Services and IT Consulting [aerospace and defense, telecommunications, and technology]

15 Bechtel Group Inc.
Engineering and Construction [nuclear weapons facilities, materials]

16 Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. (NYSE: BAH)
Consulting [Booz Allen Hamilton is majority owned by private equity firm The Carlyle Group, while Booz & Company is owned and operated as a partnership]

17 KBR Inc. (NYSE: KBR)
Engineering, Construction and Private Military Company

18 Harris Corporation (NYSE: HRS)
Communications [defense]

21 General Electric Company (NYSE: GE)
[nuclear weapons]

22 ITT Corporation (NYSE: ITT)
Conglomerate defense and security

23 Bell Boeing Joint Project Office
Aerospace and Defense

26 CACI International Inc. (NYSE: CACI)
IT Services [defense]

27 Honeywell International Inc. (NYSE: HON)
Conglomerate [defense]

28 Battelle Memorial Institute
Technology [security]

29 Textron Inc. (NYSE: TXT)
Conglomerate [aerospace and defense, satellite communications]

30 Los Alamos National Security LLC
Technology

31 Alliant Techsystems Inc. (NYSE: ATK)
Aerospace and Defense

34 Fluor Corporation (NYSE: FLR)
Engineering and Construction [security, defence]

36 Navistar International Corporation (NYSE: NAV)
[Trucks and Vehicles military, defence]

37 General Atomic Technologies Corporation
Defense and Energy [aerospace]

38 United Space Alliance LLC
Aerospace

39 Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ)
Computer Systems and IT Services [data privacy and security, defence]

42 ManTech International Corporation
IT Services [technological support for intelligence, defence, security, space community, infrastructure protection, communications integration]
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Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Defined

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:01 am

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    WIKI excerpt | Reconnaissance satellites [spy satellites] provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces also use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites.

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    WIKI excerpt | Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them.[2] This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras), or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls); and it can refer to simple, relatively no- or low-technology methods such as human intelligence agents and postal interception. The word surveillance comes from a French phrase for "watching over" ("sur" means "from above" and "veiller" means "to watch")

    Surveillance is very useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity. With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program and ADVISE, technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of their subjects.[3]

    However, many civil rights and privacy groups, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union, have expressed concern that by allowing continual increases in government surveillance of citizens we will end up in a mass surveillance society, with extremely limited, or non-existent political and/or personal freedoms. Fears such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T.[3][4]

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From Answers dot com: “I think reconnaissance deals with gathering information about targets whereas surveillance deals more with movement and coordination of units.”

    Reconnaissance looks for new (or more) detail about subject targets whereas surveillance looks for indications of confirmation or change of existing information; hence, its frequent relationship to “movement”. NATO defines the two (as taken from the NATO reference: APP-6):

    Surveillance. The systematic observation of aerospace, surface and subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means.

    Reconnaissance. A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.
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Satellite List | beginning of

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:09 am

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I had been searching for a database or a list of clearly defined intelligence or spy satellites. Perhaps if readers are so inclined to post one, the list would kinda be fun to imagine what Thierry Legault might use when photographing spy satellites. Then, again, that might be too much to ask.

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What is subsatellite point? Point on the surface of the Earth directly between the satellite and the geocenter.

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What is a geocenter? pdf, 18 pp.

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What is a keyhole satellite and what can it really spy on?
from How Stuff Works | Links in original.

    The code named Kennan "Keyhole-class" (KH) reconnaissance satellites have been orbiting the Earth for more than 30 years. They are typically used to take overhead photos for military missions. The big question for a lot of people is: "What can they see?"

    A KH-12 is a $1 billion satellite that resembles the Hubble Space Telescope, except it is looking at our planet. For security reasons, there are no published orbit schedules for the imagery spacecraft. They are supplemented by the 15-ton Lacrosse-class radar-imaging satellites.

    You can think of a KH satellite as a gigantic orbiting digital camera with an incredibly huge lens on it. Optical image reconnaissance satellites use a charge coupled device (CCD) to gather images that make up a digital photograph for transmission back to Earth from an altitude of about 200 miles. Since the satellites are in orbit, they cannot hover over a given area or provide real-time video of a single location.

    The satellites are often placed into various secret orbits by NASA space shuttles or Titan 4 rockets and managed by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), headquartered in Chantilly, Va. Digital images from the satellites are analyzed, manipulated and combined by powerful computers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA).

    The black and white images are used by the military and civilian communities. Many of the details about this class of satellites remain classified, but it is known that there are several of these overhead at any given time. They have an imaging resolution of 5-6 inches, which means they can see something 5 inches or larger on the ground. These satellites probably can't read your house number, but they can tell whether there is a bike parked in your driveway.

    Corona satellites, the first to do mapping of the Earth from space, had an imaging resolution of 6 feet. Those satellites were built by Lockheed Martin under contract to the CIA and the U.S. Air Force from 1960 to 1972 and were reportedly launched more than 100 times.

    Mapping analysts can use satellite data to create 3-D images of land formations and structures on the ground. These images can then go to the negotiating table as countries try to end a war. Or, as in the case of the television show, the images can prove that the official word from a foreign government about some activity on the ground is not true. The same technology is also used to visualize potential escape routes for criminal activity. One was once reportedly used to observe the underbelly of an orbiting space shuttle for missing ceramic tiles, needed for re-entry.

    In the United States, Vandenberg Air Force Base in California has been the primary site for the launch of many surveillance satellites during the Cold War and to the present. Some early satellites had capsules aboard to return film canisters to the Earth. The canisters were snatched in the air by Air Force crews over the Pacific Ocean. Since 1958 the special satellites were made by Lockheed Martin, and more recently Boeing has the contract with the National Reconnaissance Office.

    Here are some interesting links:

    How Satellites Work
    How the Hubble Space Telescope Works
    How Digital Cameras Work
    Is there any way to see satellites in orbit?
    How do satellites orbit the Earth?
    National Imagery and Mapping Agency
    Central Intelligence Agency
    The National Security Agency

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    WIKI excerpt | List of USA satellites and spacecraft which have been given USA designations by the United States Air Force. These designations have been applied to most US military satellites since 1984, and replaced the earlier OPS designation. It is comparable to the Soviet/Russian Kosmos designation. ... USA designations have been assigned to 241 space missions. For an unknown reason, the designation USA-163 has never been assigned.[1]

On that above Wiki page, note these indicated columns for purposes of further research and cross-referencing: satellites names, designations, function and remarks. Note in the status column: Out of service, Deorbited, Presumed deorbited, Decayed, Retired, Failed, Active, Out of service, Unknown, Destroyed, Landed.

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ESTRACK | Estrack tracking stations

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Spy satellite
National Reconnaissance Office
Defense Support Program
European Union Satellite Centre
Atmospheric reentry
List of intelligence gathering disciplines

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Corona satellite page at NRO [page unavailable]
Corona satellite page at NASA [page unavailable]
Erickson, Mark. Into the Unknown Together - The DOD, NASA, and Early Spaceflight. ISBN 1-58566-140-6. [document unavailable]

⋅ Corona (satellite) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corona_%28satellite%29
⋅ USA-193 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USA-193
⋅ Zenit (satellite) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenit_(satellite)
⋅ KH-11 Kennan https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KH-11_Kennan
⋅ RISAT-2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RISAT-2
⋅ Indian Spy Satellites http://www.defence.pk/forums/indian-def ... lites.html
⋅ Israeli spy satellite launched by Indian rocket http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Israeli_spy ... ian_rocket
⋅ Sapphire (satellite) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapphire_%28satellite%29

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Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite | NEOSSat

United States Space Surveillance Network

Air Force Space Surveillance System

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    WIKI excerpt | USA-193, also known as NRO launch 21 (NROL-21 or simply L-21), was an American military spy satellite launched on December 14, 2006.[2] It was the first launch conducted by the United Launch Alliance.[3] Owned by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the craft's precise function and purpose were classified.

    The satellite malfunctioned shortly after deployment, and was intentionally destroyed 14 months later on February 21, 2008, by a modified, $9.5 million SM-3 missile fired from the warship USS Lake Erie, stationed west of Hawaii.[4][5] The event highlighted growing distrust between the U.S. and China, and was viewed by some to be part of a wider "space race" involving the U.S., China, and Russia.[6]

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Slashdot | US Launches Largest Spy Satellite Ever

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Bright Hub, Nov 2010 | Military Satellites: Meaning and Purpose

    Military Satellites Explained

    Military satellites are state-of-the art, artificial satellites. Between 1957 and 1999 around 4000 satellites were launched without fail. Of the 4000 satellites, about 50 percent have been used specifically for military purposes.

    The major functions of military satellites include reconnaissance and surveillance, positioning and navigation, analyzing and recording information about the surface of the earth (remote sensing), geodesy, research and analyzing weather and weather conditions (meteorology). Here it would be important to note that a satellite is rarely military nor civil exclusively. The payload it carries determines whether it is of civilian or military character. Although military communication satellites differ from commercial satellites, there are some civil commercial satellites used for several military tasks, including command assistance and military logistics support. A satellite with purely military uses, having certain capabilities and multiple systems that differ from commercial ones, is what would be considered a true military satellite.

    The best example of a military satellite is the NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System). The NAVSTAR GPS network is operated by the US Air Force. It contains an accurate and reliable satellite navigation system that determines the position of military forces on the ground, air or at sea. The network is also used for many commercial purposes. Its 25 spacecrafts (of which 21 are operational) provide worldwide coverage, including the north and south poles. The spacecrafts are semi-synchronous orbits inclined at 55 degrees to the equator at 18700 km (11,600 miles) altitude. Russia operates the GLONASS navigation system, a less reliable system, compared to the US version.

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Space Fence | Raytheon

    Since the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, Earth’s orbit has become increasingly filled with man-made space debris.

    Leveraging existing technologies, more than 20,000 objects have been catalogued, but it is estimated that more than half a million pieces exist.

    A piece of debris as small as 1 centimeter can seriously damage — or even destroy — an operational satellite.

    In 2011, the National Research Council declared that space debris had passed a “tipping point.” These pieces of “space junk,” if left unchecked will seriously threaten GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, weather tracking, space exploration, surveillance, climate monitoring and countless other military and commercial technologies.

    Why Raytheon?

    Raytheon’s Space Fence program is the future of Space Situational Awareness.

    The program will provide the U.S. Air Force with enhanced space surveillance capability to track and detect resident space objects consisting of thousands of pieces of space debris as well as commercial and military satellites.

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Space Fence | Lockheed Martin press release?

Lockheed Martin Submits Space Fence Radar Proposal to U.S. Air Force to Detect and Track Orbital Objects

    MOORESTOWN, N.J., Nov. 13, 2012 – Lockheed Martin [NYSE: LMT] has submitted its final contract proposal to build Space Fence, an advanced ground-based radar system that will improve the way the U.S. Air Force identifies and tracks orbital objects.

    Space Fence will provide much-needed enhanced space situational awareness capabilities for the Air Force and allow the service to decommission the aging U.S.-based Air Force Space Surveillance System, originally installed in 1961.

    “The original surveillance system wasn’t designed to detect and track the hundreds of thousands of smaller, orbiting objects that are in space today, potentially threatening the International Space Station, future manned space flight missions and our nation’s critical satellite assets,” said Steve Bruce, vice president for space surveillance systems at Lockheed Martin’s Mission Systems & Sensors business. “With decades of experience developing powerful S-band radar systems, Lockheed Martin has proposed a scalable and affordable Space Fence solution for the Air Force that will transform space situational awareness.”

    The Air Force plans to begin construction at its first Space Fence site on Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the fall of 2013 to meet the program’s 2017 initial operational capability goal. The contract value is estimated at $1.9 billion over a seven-year period of performance.

    Using powerful, new ground-based S-band radar technology, Space Fence will enhance the way the U.S. detects, tracks, measures and catalogs orbiting objects and space debris with improved accuracy, better timeliness and increased surveillance coverage. Earlier this year, Lockheed Martin demonstrated its prototype Space Fence radar proving it could already detect resident space objects.

    With more than 400 operational S-band arrays deployed worldwide, Lockheed Martin is a leader in S-band radar development, production, operation and sustainment. The Lockheed Martin-led team – which includes General Dynamics, AMEC and AT&Thas decades of collective experience in space-related programs, including sensors, mission processing, cataloging, orbital mechanics, net-centric communications and facilities.

    Headquartered in Bethesda, Md., Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs about 120,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. The Corporation’s net sales for 2011 were $46.5 billion.

http://youtu.be/7SJdN90vT04

^ Space Fence: Watching Over Us featuring Greg Fonder, Lockheed Martin
Art will be the last bastion when all else fades away.
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The Aerospace Corporation, SMC, NRO

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:11 am

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    WIKI excerpt | The Aerospace Corporation is a private, non-profit corporation headquartered in El Segundo, California that has operated a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) for the United States Air Force since 1960. The purposes of the corporation are exclusively scientific: to engage in, assist and contribute to the support of scientific activities and projects for, and to perform and engage in research, development and advisory services to or for, the United States Government. As the FFRDC for national-security space, Aerospace works closely with organizations such as the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to provide “objective technical analyses and assessments for space programs that serve the national interest.”

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    WIKI excerpt | Space and Missile Systems Center is a part of Air Force Space Command of the United States Air Force. SMC is the Air Force’s product center for the development and acquisition of space and missile systems. The Center was established in 1954 and has been involved in military space systems development since the earliest days of the space age.

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    WIKI excerpt | National Reconnaissance Office is one of the 16 U.S. intelligence agencies and considered, along with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and National Geospatial‐Intelligence Agency (NGA), to be one of the “big five” U.S. Intelligence agencies. The NRO is headquartered 2 miles (3 km) south of Washington Dulles International Airport.

    It designs, builds, and operates the spy satellites of the United States government, and provides imagery intelligence (IMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) to several intelligence and military agencies. The NRO’s workforce consists primarily of Department of Defense, CIA, NGA, and NSA personnel.

    The Director of the NRO reports to both the Director of National Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense and serves as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Intelligence Space Technology). The NRO has the largest budget of any U.S intelligence agency.
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ESA | maritime satellite surveillance

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:11 am

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Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Target Acquisition

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:12 am

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European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co., MBDA

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:13 am

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    WIKI excerpt | The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. (EADS) is a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation registered in the Netherlands and a defence and military contractor worldwide. The group includes Airbus which manufactures commercial aircraft, and Airbus Military which manufactures tanker, transport and mission aircraft; Eurocopter, the world’s largest helicopter supplier; Astrium, providing systems for aerial, land, naval and civilian security applications including Ariane, Galileo and Cassidian. Through Cassidian, EADS is a partner in the Eurofighter consortium as well in the missile systems provider MBDA. In 2011, the EADS generated revenues of €49.13 billion and employed 133,115 personnel[citation needed]. EADS was formed on 10 July 2000 by the merger of Aérospatiale-Matra, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA), and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA). Overall, the company develops and markets civil and military aircraft, as well as communications systems, missiles, space rockets, satellites, and related systems.

    The prime contractor for the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is EADS Astrium Space Transportation, leading a consortium of many sub-contractors. See XMM-Newton observatory.

    Astrium Satellites

    Astrium Services

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    WIKI excerpt | MBDA is a missile developer and manufacturer with operations in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States.[3][4] It was formed by a merger of French Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles (of EADS), Italian Alenia Marconi Systems (of Finmeccanica) and British Matra BAe Dynamics (of BAE Systems) in December 2001.[5] In 2003 the company had 10,000 employees. In 2011, MBDA recorded a turnover of €3 bn, produced over 3,000 missiles and achieved an order book of €10.5 bn. MBDA works with over 90 armed forces worldwide.

    Sidebar: Overall, the group has 45 products in service and 15 more in development. MBDA's products include: Air-to-air missiles, Surface-to-air missiles, Air-to-surface missiles, Anti-ship missiles, Anti-tank missiles.

    Sidebar: The Next Generation Multiple Warhead System, or NGMWS, is a weapon developed by MBDA to defeat hard and deeply buried targets (hence an alternative name, HARDBUT).[1][2]

    The system includes a precursor charge and a follow-through bomb. Development was funded by the British and French ministries of defense.[3]
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Stanford Research Institute, Arecibo Observatory

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:13 am

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    WIKI excerpt | Stanford Research Institute’s focus areas include biomedical sciences, chemistry and materials, computing, Earth and space systems, economic development, education and learning, energy and environmental technology, security and national defense, as well as sensing and devices. SRI has received more than 1,000 patents and patent applications worldwide.

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UK Space Agency, British space programme

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:14 am

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UK Space Agency
    The United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) is an executive agency of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for the United Kingdom's civil space programme. It was established on 1 April 2010 to replace the British National Space Centre and took over responsibility for government policy and key budgets for space exploration,[1] and represents the United Kingdom in all negotiations on space matters.[2][3] It "[brings] together all UK civil space activities under one single management".[1] It is initially operating from the existing BNSC headquarters in Swindon, Wiltshire.[2][4][5][6]

    Creation and aims

    The establishment of the UK Space Agency was announced by Lord Mandelson, Lord Drayson and astronaut Major Timothy Peake at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre on 23 March 2010.

    Around £230 million of funding and management functions was merged into the UK Space Agency from other organisations.[2] It cost US$60 million to create.[7] "Improving coordination of UK efforts in fields such as Earth science, telecoms and space exploration" will form part of its remit, according to Lord Drayson.[8]

    Prior to the creation of the UK Space Agency, the space and satellite industry in the UK was valued at £6 billion and supported 68,000 jobs. The 20-year aim of the UK Space Agency is to increase the industry to £40 billion and 100,000 jobs,[1] and to represent 10% of worldwide space products and services (increasing from the current 6%). This plan arises from the "Space Innovation and Growth Strategy" (Space-IGS).[2]

    Although Space-IGS called for the UK to double European Space Agency (ESA) contributions and to initiate and lead at least three missions between now and 2030, this has not been committed to, with Lord Drayson stating that "We will require a compelling business case for each proposal or mission".[2]

    International Space Innovation Centre

    Alongside the UK Space Agency, a £40 million "International Space Innovation Centre" (ISIC) (http://www.isic-space.com) has been created at Harwell, Oxfordshire,[1] alongside the research facility for ESA. Some of its tasks will be to investigate climate change, and the security of space systems. £24 million of the cost of the centre will be funded by the government, with the remainder from industry, and it will lead to the creation of 700 jobs over five years.[9] In April 2013, ISIC merged into the newly formed Satellite Applications Catapult.

    Transfer of authority

    The UK Space Agency took over the following responsibilities from other government organisations:

    ⋅ All responsibilities, personnel, and assets of the British National Space Centre
    ⋅ ESA subscriptions from Natural Environment Research Council, Science and Technology Facilities Council and Technology Strategy Board,[1] including project grants and post-launch support.[10]
    ⋅ UK elements of the space components of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, and the Galileo satellite navigation system[1]
    ⋅ The financial interest in the European Union Satellite Centre (agreed in principle)[1]
    ⋅ Space technology and instrumentation funding from the Research Councils UK and Technology Strategy Board[1]

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British space programme
    WIKI excerpt | Military satellite programmes. Skynet is a purely military programme, operating a set of satellites on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence.

    Skynet provides strategic communication services to the three branches of the British Armed Forces and to NATO forces engaged on coalition tasks. The first satellite was launched in 1969, and the most recent in 2012.

    Skynet is the most expensive single UK space project, although as a military initiative it is not part of the civil space programme.

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British space programme
    WIKI excerpt | Intelligence satellite programmes. Zircon was the codename for a British signals intelligence satellite, intended to be launched in 1988, before being cancelled. During the Cold War, Britain's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) was very reliant on America's National Security Agency (NSA) for communications interception from space. GCHQ therefore decided to produce a UK-designed-and-built signals intelligence satellite, to be named Zircon, a code-name derived from zirconium silicate, a diamond substitute.

    Zircon's function was to intercept radio and other signals from the USSR, Europe and other areas. The satellite was to be built by Marconi Space and Defence Systems at Portsmouth Airport, in which a new high security building had been built.

    It was to be launched on a NASA Space Shuttle under the guise of Skynet IV. Launch on the Shuttle would have entitled a British National to fly as a Mission Specialist and a group of military pilots were presented to the press as candidates for 'Britain's first man in space'.

    Zircon was cancelled by Chancellor Nigel Lawson on grounds of its cost in 1987. The subsequent scandal about the true nature of the project became known as the Zircon Affair.
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International Telecommunication Union

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:15 am

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International Telecommunication Union
    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originally founded as the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications), is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards.

    ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology.

    The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.

    ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 Sector Members and Associates.
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PRISM

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:15 am

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PRISM (surveillance program)
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Intelligence and National Security, ISR

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:16 am

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Intelligence Issues for Congress
Marshall Curtis Erwin
Analyst in Intelligence and National Security
April 23, 2013
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf [30 pp.]

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Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs:
Issues for Congress
Richard A. Best, Jr.
Specialist in National Defense
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Updated February 22, 2005
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL32508.pdf [30 pp.]
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European Space Agency, Policy

Postby Allegro » Mon Aug 26, 2013 11:19 pm

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Space policy of the European Union
    WIKI excerpt | A formal European Space Policy was established on 22 May 2007 when a joint and concomitant meeting at ministerial level of the Council of the European Union and the Council of the European Space Agency adopted a Resolution on the European Space Policy.[1] The policy had been jointly drafted by the European Commission and the Director General of the European Space Agency.

    Currently each member state pursues their own national space policy, though often co-ordinating through the independent European Space Agency (ESA). Enterprise and Industry Commissioner Günter Verheugen has stated that even though the EU is “a world leader in the technology, it is being put on the defensive by the US and Russia and that it only has about a 10 year technological advantage on China and India, which are racing to catch up.”[2][3]

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Conference At The European Parliament On A New Space Policy For Europe
SPACEMART
by Staff Writers | Brussels, Belgium (SPX) | Oct 13, 2010

    Europe’s future in space and the opportunities it will offer to us all will be discussed at a conference in Brussels on 26-27 October under the aegis of the European Parliament. Members of the public are invited to attend.

    This conference, organised with the participation of ESA and under the high patronage of the President of the European Parliament, Mr Jerzy Buzek, is a new opportunity for the political decision-makers, company executives and representatives of civil society to discover and debate the political and financial stakes as well as the exciting industrial and service opportunities offered by the competence on the space policy of the EU.

    The Convention of ESA, an International Treaty among 18 European States that entered into force in 1975, establishes that the purpose of the Agency is to foster cooperation among European states in space, by elaborating and implementing a long-term European Space Policy.

    The Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force on 1 December 2009, has given a additional impetus to the European Space Policy, to its programmes and to its ambitions in the exploitation and exploration of space.

    It also reallocates the competences between the institutions of the EU. It also provides the European Parliament with a crucial role.

    Top-level representatives of Europe, its institutions and industrialists, will participate in the debates.

    The Conference will be opened by Mr Buzek, President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council, Antonio Tajani, Vice-President of the European Commission (tbc), Jean-Jacques Dordain, Director General of ESA and Mercedes Bresso, President of the European Committee of the Regions.

    The subjects under discussion will include:

      + Governance for the European space infrastructures
      + Industrial policy
      + Financing: public credits, private investments, commercial space
      + State of play of the main European space programmes
      + Space infrastructures in the service of crisis management, security and defence
      + Space infrastructure in the service of society
      + Space infrastructure in the service of optimum management of the planet
      + The stakes of space exploration

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5th Conference – Brussels – 29-30 January 2013
Welcome to the website of the fifth annual Conference on EU space policy.
“Building up a global tool for global challenges”

    Does the European Union remain committed, as it set out for itself in the Lisbon Treaty, to provide itself with a space policy that meets the ambitions and the challenges of the 21st century? Is it genuinely prepared to quickly put in place the sort of industrial, R&D and commercial policies that appear indispensible for a continued access to space and the autonomy of its programmes and projects? Will the 27 Member States mobilise the financial resources that will be required over the course of the coming years as a result of the long-term choices that are necessitated by this ambitious strategy?

    So many key questions are at stake; and they will be at the heart of the Fifth Annual Conference on EU Space Policy, to which we have the honour of inviting you.

    This fifth edition has been established under the patronage of the President of the European Commission, Mr José Manuel Barroso, the President of the European Council, Mr Herman Van Rompuy, and the President of the European Parliament, Mr. Martin Schulz. It will also benefit from the support and the participation of the Vice-President of the European Commission, Mr Antonio Tajani, the Director-General of the European Space Agency, Mr Jean-Jacques Dordain, and presidents and CEOs of large-scale businesses and organisation operating within the space sector.

    Global positioning and satellite navigation systems, as well as space-based telecommunications systems and earth, ocean and atmosphere observation and surveillance, know no frontier other than those imposed by their own technological limits.

    For this reason, this conference will be opened by focussing in particular on the global dimension of space policies from around the world, and thus the considerable responsibility that lies with the EU in contributing to providing all of humanity with the space-based tools that are indispensable to its environment, security and, indeed, survival.

    The European Union is now already engaged, with the collaboration of ESA, in three space programmes – EGNOS, Galileo and GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) – whose strategic importance for the EU’s role in world affairs is matched only by the now-recognised essential character of the services offered to the daily lives of citizens, and the day-to-day of public services and businesses. This includes in terms of the protection of the environment, mobility, support for agriculture, improving industrial performance, innovative telecommunications, meteorology, managing humanitarian crises and natural and man-made disasters, etc. This is without mentioning an aspect on which, nowadays, particular emphasis is being placed: restoring growth and the creation of employment by strengthening the competitiveness of industry and the creation of new businesses.

    It is therefore absolutely crucial for the European Union and its Member States, in concert with ESA, to take, without delay, the necessary political, legal and technical decisions. They need also, imperatively, to mobilise the necessary financial resources in order to ensure independent access to space, complete the space systems currently being developed or planned, and promote R&D and the development of innovative space services and applications. These necessities are only reinforced by the world of “global competition” that we inhabit, where fair competition at the international level is far from being a reality.

    For this reason, two sessions of this 2013 conference will be dedicated to the two pillars on which EU space policy necessarily has to rely: an appropriate industrial policy, and a research and innovation policy that is both ambitious and tailored to the specificities of the space sector.

    With regard to industrial policy, representatives from the Commission will be asked to comment on the Communication which, by the time of the conference, may well have been adopted, or at least to outline its principal elements in as precise a manner as possible: legislative and regulatory framework, public procurement, standardisation, trade reciprocity, data protection, financing, etc., in order for officials from other EU institutions, from ESA and from other European organisations, as well as representatives from industry and user-groups, to be able to provide their comments and raise any questions.

    As regarding R&D and innovation, this will certainly be an opportune moment to take stock of the future European programme for 2014-2020, entitled “Horizon 2020”, and in particular the funding package of 1.4 billion euros (in constant prices) proposed by the Commission for the space sector. The opportunity will thus be given to other participants, such as representatives of the European Parliament, ESA and business, to comment on and to criticise the choices that may be made.

    This political gathering will also allow us, during the third session, to examine with the Commission and ESA the current state of the Galileo programme, the development of EGNOS, the future of the GMES programme, the state of play regarding the ESSP project, the outlines of data management policy, and, finally, the future European system for space surveillance and security. It is a list of prospective issues that we will be addressing, in particular, in light of the results of the negotiations underway for the establishment of a new Multiannual Financial Framework for 2014-2020.

    How, by whom and within which framework should these different space programmes and initiatives be managed? A governance framework has already largely been identified, and the Fourth Session will thus provide the opportunity for an assessment of the results of the discussions that have taken place between the Council of the EU, the Commission and the European Space Agency, and to see whether – and what type of – a coherent and effective framework is being formed.

    The governance of Europe’s space policy is more important an issue today than ever, given the now-acknowledged dual use of space services and applications, that is to say their use for civil but also for security and defence purposes. The Fifth Session will offer the chance to identify all the implications of this dual use, from market-opening to data protection, through the shape of a possible European system for space surveillance and security.

    An excellent opportunity for participants

    This 2013 conference offers a perfect opportunity for policy-makers, business leaders, scientists and representatives of civil society:

    ⋅ to stay informed regarding expected developments on EU space policy, directly with European decision-makers,
    ⋅ to get the latest picture of the state of the inter-institutional negotiations on the EU’s Multiannual Financial Framework (2014-2020) and on the European public financing perspectives of planned or existing programmes, as well as of R&D&I in fields linked to space,
    ⋅ to learn about the EU’s intentions in terms of the governance of space projects and the allocation of responsibilities among the various institutional actors,
    ⋅ to take stock of the current state of the two large-scale programmes in development, Galileo and GMES, directly from those in charge of them,
    ⋅ to learn about the advances that are envisaged in other sectors such as extra-atmospheric space security and space exploration and exploitation,
    ⋅ and also to express their expectations, and to inform, persuade and influence decision-makers, business leaders and potential users as to the technological, industrial, economic and social opportunities offered by space resources.

    Expected participants

    The Conference aims to bring together all parties concerned with EU space policy and its innumerable applications (transport, telecommunications, combating climate change, civil engineering, agriculture, fishing, energy, civil protection, sea and mountain rescue, traffic management, monitoring of high-risk infrastructure, crisis prevention, insurance, financial services, etc.), and will include representatives from:

    ⋅ the space industry – heads of corporations and SMEs [small and medium-sized enterprises],
    ⋅ research and development centres,
    ⋅ businesses developing space applications,
    ⋅ businesses using space services,
    ⋅ public bodies involved in providing assistance to civil society,
    ⋅ the defence and civil protection sectors,
    ⋅ regional and local institutions and authorities: regions, provinces, cities, etc.,
    ⋅ European institutions,
    ⋅ national institutions, parliaments and relevant national agencies,
    ⋅ financial actors: EIB [European Investment Bank], banking institutions, venture capital, etc.,
    ⋅ trade-unions, consumer organisations, NGOs, etc.,
    ⋅ the media.

    Organised in collaboration with:

    The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry, the European Parliament and its “Sky and Space” Intergroup, the European Council, the European Space Agency and Eurospace.
Art will be the last bastion when all else fades away.
~ Timothy White (b 1952), American rock music journalist
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United States intelligence budget

Postby Allegro » Thu Aug 29, 2013 10:32 pm

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    WIKI excerpt | United States intelligence budget comprises all the funding for the 16 agencies of the United States Intelligence Community. These agencies and other programs fit into one of the intelligence budget’s two components, the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and the Military Intelligence Program (MIP). As with other parts of the federal budget, the US intelligence budget runs according to the Fiscal year (FY), not the calendar year. Before government finances are spent on intelligence, the funds must first be authorized and appropriated by committees in both the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. Pursuant to a suggestion by 9/11 Commission, the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) released the top line amount given to the NIP for fiscal year 2009 as 49.8 billion USD.[1] In FY2010, the NIP budget was 53.1 billion USD,[2] and the MIP budget 27 billion USD,[3] amounting to a total of 80 billion USD.[4]

    National Intelligence Program

    The National Intelligence Program, under budgetary control of the DNI, comprises the agencies and programs formerly under the National Foreign Intelligence Program. This adjustment was made to better include domestic intelligence programs and intelligence arms of the Department of Homeland Security.[5]

    Military Intelligence Program

    In September 2005, the Military Intelligence Program was established by combining all of the agencies formerly under the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) and most of the program from the former Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) group.[6]

    List of some of the Agencies and Programs[7]

    National Intelligence Program
      Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
      Counterintelligence - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
      Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) - Department of State (DoS)
      Office of Intelligence Support - Department of Treasury
      Defense Cryptologic Program (DCP)

    Military Intelligence Program
      Army Military Intelligence (MI)
      Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency (AF ISR)
      Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA)
      Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)
      Special Operations Command (SOCOM)

    Both NIP/MIP
      National Security Agency
      Defense Intelligence Agency
      National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
Art will be the last bastion when all else fades away.
~ Timothy White (b 1952), American rock music journalist
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National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Postby Allegro » Thu Aug 29, 2013 10:32 pm

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    WIKI excerpt | National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is a combat support agency of the United States Department of Defense[4] with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security. NGA was formerly known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). In addition, NGA is a key component of the United States Intelligence Community.

    NGA headquarters is located in Springfield, Virginia and operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide. The NGA was headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland until 2011, when NGA consolidated many of its regional activities as part of the BRAC into a new campus near Ft. Belvoir in Fairfax County, Virginia. The NGA campus, at 2.3 million square feet (214,000 m²), is the third-largest government building in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and its atrium is spacious enough to hold the Statue of Liberty.[5][6] Its budget is classified,[1] but is estimated to be the fourth largest among U.S. intelligence agencies after the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, and National Reconnaissance Office.[2]

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    WIKI excerpt | Geospatial intelligence GEOINT (GEOspatial INTelligence), GeoIntel (Geospatial Intelligence), or GSI (GeoSpatial Intelligence) is intelligence derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and geospatial information.[1]
Art will be the last bastion when all else fades away.
~ Timothy White (b 1952), American rock music journalist
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