A Timeline of CIA Atrocities

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A Timeline of CIA Atrocities

Postby RebelYell » Tue Jul 19, 2005 3:28 pm

A Timeline of CIA Atrocities<br><br>By Steve Kangas<br><br>The following timeline describes just a few of the hundreds of atrocities and crimes committed by the CIA. (1)<br><br>CIA operations follow the same recurring script. First, American business interests abroad are threatened by a popular or democratically elected leader. The people support their leader because he intends to conduct land reform, strengthen unions, redistribute wealth, nationalize foreign-owned industry, and regulate business to protect workers, consumers and the environment. So, on behalf of American business, and often with their help, the CIA mobilizes the opposition. First it identifies right-wing groups within the country (usually the military), and offers them a deal: "We'll put you in power if you maintain a favorable business climate for us." The Agency then hires, trains and works with them to overthrow the existing government (usually a democracy). It uses every trick in the book: propaganda, stuffed ballot boxes, purchased elections, extortion, blackmail, sexual intrigue, false stories about opponents in the local media, infiltration and disruption of opposing political parties, kidnapping, beating, torture, intimidation, economic sabotage, death squads and even assassination. These efforts culminate in a military coup, which installs a right-wing dictator. The CIA trains the dictator’s security apparatus to crack down on the traditional enemies of big business, using interrogation, torture and murder. The victims are said to be "communists," but almost always they are just peasants, liberals, moderates, labor union leaders, political opponents and advocates of free speech and democracy. Widespread human rights abuses follow.<br><br>This scenario has been repeated so many times that the CIA actually teaches it in a special school, the notorious "School of the Americas." (It opened in Panama but later moved to Fort Benning, Georgia.) Critics have nicknamed it the "School of the Dictators" and "School of the Assassins." Here, the CIA trains Latin American military officers how to conduct coups, including the use of interrogation, torture and murder.<br><br>The Association for Responsible Dissent estimates that by 1987, 6 million people had died as a result of CIA covert operations. (2) Former State Department official William Blum correctly calls this an "American Holocaust."<br><br>The CIA justifies these actions as part of its war against communism. But most coups do not involve a communist threat. Unlucky nations are targeted for a wide variety of reasons: not only threats to American business interests abroad, but also liberal or even moderate social reforms, political instability, the unwillingness of a leader to carry out Washington’s dictates, and declarations of neutrality in the Cold War. Indeed, nothing has infuriated CIA Directors quite like a nation’s desire to stay out of the Cold War.<br><br>The ironic thing about all this intervention is that it frequently fails to achieve American objectives. Often the newly installed dictator grows comfortable with the security apparatus the CIA has built for him. He becomes an expert at running a police state. And because the dictator knows he cannot be overthrown, he becomes independent and defiant of Washington's will. The CIA then finds it cannot overthrow him, because the police and military are under the dictator's control, afraid to cooperate with American spies for fear of torture and execution. The only two options for the U.S at this point are impotence or war. Examples of this "boomerang effect" include the Shah of Iran, General Noriega and Saddam Hussein. The boomerang effect also explains why the CIA has proven highly successful at overthrowing democracies, but a wretched failure at overthrowing dictatorships.<br><br>The following timeline should confirm that the CIA as we know it should be abolished and replaced by a true information-gathering and analysis organization. The CIA cannot be reformed — it is institutionally and culturally corrupt.<br><br>1929<br><br>The culture we lost — Secretary of State Henry Stimson refuses to endorse a code-breaking operation, saying, "Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail."<br><br>1941<br><br>COI created — In preparation for World War II, President Roosevelt creates the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). General William "Wild Bill" Donovan heads the new intelligence service.<br><br>1942<br><br>OSS created — Roosevelt restructures COI into something more suitable for covert action, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Donovan recruits so many of the nation’s rich and powerful that eventually people joke that "OSS" stands for "Oh, so social!" or "Oh, such snobs!"<br><br>1943<br><br>Italy — Donovan recruits the Catholic Church in Rome to be the center of Anglo-American spy operations in Fascist Italy. This would prove to be one of America’s most enduring intelligence alliances in the Cold War.<br><br>1945<br><br>OSS is abolished — The remaining American information agencies cease covert actions and return to harmless information gathering and analysis.<br><br>Operation PAPERCLIP – While other American agencies are hunting down Nazi war criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community is smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against the Soviets. The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union. With full U.S. blessing, he creates the "Gehlen Organization," a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their networks in Russia. These include SS intelligence officers Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the "Butcher of Lyon"), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) and SS Colonel Otto Skorzeny (a personal friend of Hitler’s). The Gehlen Organization supplies the U.S. with its only intelligence on the Soviet Union for the next ten years, serving as a bridge between the abolishment of the OSS and the creation of the CIA. However, much of the "intelligence" the former Nazis provide is bogus. Gehlen inflates Soviet military capabilities at a time when Russia is still rebuilding its devastated society, in order to inflate his own importance to the Americans (who might otherwise punish him). In 1948, Gehlen almost convinces the Americans that war is imminent, and the West should make a preemptive strike. In the 50s he produces a fictitious "missile gap." To make matters worse, the Russians have thoroughly penetrated the Gehlen Organization with double agents, undermining the very American security that Gehlen was supposed to protect. <br><br>1947<br><br>Greece — President Truman requests military aid to Greece to support right-wing forces fighting communist rebels. For the rest of the Cold War, Washington and the CIA will back notorious Greek leaders with deplorable human rights records.<br><br>CIA created — President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947, creating the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council. The CIA is accountable to the president through the NSC — there is no democratic or congressional oversight. Its charter allows the CIA to "perform such other functions and duties… as the National Security Council may from time to time direct." This loophole opens the door to covert action and dirty tricks.<br><br>1948<br><br>Covert-action wing created — The CIA recreates a covert action wing, innocuously called the Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall Street lawyer Frank Wisner. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities include "propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including sabotage, antisabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."<br><br>Italy — The CIA corrupts democratic elections in Italy, where Italian communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes, broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition leaders, and infiltrates and disrupts their organizations. It works -- the communists are defeated.<br><br>1949<br><br>Radio Free Europe — The CIA creates its first major propaganda outlet, Radio Free Europe. Over the next several decades, its broadcasts are so blatantly false that for a time it is considered illegal to publish transcripts of them in the U.S.<br><br>Late 40s<br><br>Operation MOCKINGBIRD — The CIA begins recruiting American news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda. The effort is headed by Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Eventually, the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS, Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. By the CIA’s own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA assets.<br><br>1953<br><br>Iran – CIA overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo.<br><br>Operation MK-ULTRA — Inspired by North Korea’s brainwashing program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. The most notorious part of this project involves giving LSD and other drugs to American subjects without their knowledge or against their will, causing several to commit suicide. However, the operation involves far more than this. Funded in part by the Rockefeller and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda, brainwashing, public relations, advertising, hypnosis, and other forms of suggestion.<br><br>1954<br><br>Guatemala — CIA overthrows the democratically elected Jacob Arbenz in a military coup. Arbenz has threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a series of right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies will kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.<br><br>1954-1958<br><br>North Vietnam — CIA officer Edward Lansdale spends four years trying to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam, using all the usual dirty tricks. The CIA also attempts to legitimize a tyrannical puppet regime in South Vietnam, headed by Ngo Dinh Diem. These efforts fail to win the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese because the Diem government is opposed to true democracy, land reform and poverty reduction measures. The CIA’s continuing failure results in escalating American intervention, culminating in the Vietnam War.<br><br>1956<br><br>Hungary — Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt by broadcasting Khruschev’s Secret Speech, in which he denounced Stalin. It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. This aid fails to materialize as Hungarians launch a doomed armed revolt, which only invites a major Soviet invasion. The conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.<br><br>1957-1973<br><br>Laos — The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year trying to nullify Laos’ democratic elections. The problem is the Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a member of any coalition government. In the late 50s, the CIA even creates an "Armee Clandestine" of Asian mercenaries to attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIA’s army suffers numerous defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of all Laotians will eventually become refugees, many living in caves.<br><br>1959<br><br>Haiti — The U.S. military helps "Papa Doc" Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the "Tonton Macoutes," who terrorize the population with machetes. They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign. The U.S. does not protest their dismal human rights record.<br><br>1961<br><br>The Bay of Pigs — The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Castro’s Cuba. But "Operation Mongoose" fails, due to poor planning, security and backing. The planners had imagined that the invasion will spark a popular uprising against Castro -– which never happens. A promised American air strike also never occurs. This is the CIA’s first public setback, causing President Kennedy to fire CIA Director Allen Dulles.<br><br>Dominican Republic — The CIA assassinates Rafael Trujillo, a murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930. Trujillo’s business interests have grown so large (about 60 percent of the economy) that they have begun competing with American business interests.<br><br>Ecuador — The CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man.<br><br>Congo (Zaire) — The CIA assassinates the democratically elected Patrice Lumumba. However, public support for Lumumba’s politics runs so high that the CIA cannot clearly install his opponents in power. Four years of political turmoil follow.<br><br>1963<br><br>Dominican Republic — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Juan Bosch in a military coup. The CIA installs a repressive, right-wing junta.<br><br>Ecuador — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows President Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections, and begins abusing human rights.<br><br>1964<br><br>Brazil — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the democratically elected government of Joao Goulart. The junta that replaces it will, in the next two decades, become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo Branco will create Latin America’s first death squads, or bands of secret police who hunt down "communists" for torture, interrogation and murder. Often these "communists" are no more than Branco’s political opponents. Later it is revealed that the CIA trains the death squads.<br><br>1965<br><br>Indonesia — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Sukarno with a military coup. The CIA has been trying to eliminate Sukarno since 1957, using everything from attempted assassination to sexual intrigue, for nothing more than his declaring neutrality in the Cold War. His successor, General Suharto, will massacre between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being "communist." The CIA supplies the names of countless suspects.<br><br>Dominican Republic — A popular rebellion breaks out, promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country’s elected leader. The revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.<br><br>Greece — With the CIA’s backing, the king removes George Papandreous as prime minister. Papandreous has failed to vigorously support U.S. interests in Greece.<br><br>Congo (Zaire) — A CIA-backed military coup installs Mobutu Sese Seko as dictator. The hated and repressive Mobutu exploits his desperately poor country for billions.<br><br>1966<br><br>The Ramparts Affair — The radical magazine Ramparts begins a series of unprecedented anti-CIA articles. Among their scoops: the CIA has paid the University of Michigan $25 million dollars to hire "professors" to train South Vietnamese students in covert police methods. MIT and other universities have received similar payments. Ramparts also reveals that the National Students’ Association is a CIA front. Students are sometimes recruited through blackmail and bribery, including draft deferments.<br><br>1967<br><br>Greece — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government two days before the elections. The favorite to win was George Papandreous, the liberal candidate. During the next six years, the "reign of the colonels" — backed by the CIA — will usher in the widespread use of torture and murder against political opponents. When a Greek ambassador objects to President Johnson about U.S. plans for Cypress, Johnson tells him: "Fuck your parliament and your constitution."<br><br>Operation PHEONIX — The CIA helps South Vietnamese agents identify and then murder alleged Viet Cong leaders operating in South Vietnamese villages. According to a 1971 congressional report, this operation killed about 20,000 "Viet Cong."<br><br>1968<br><br>Operation CHAOS — The CIA has been illegally spying on American citizens since 1959, but with Operation CHAOS, President Johnson dramatically boosts the effort. CIA agents go undercover as student radicals to spy on and disrupt campus organizations protesting the Vietnam War. They are searching for Russian instigators, which they never find. CHAOS will eventually spy on 7,000 individuals and 1,000 organizations.<br><br>Bolivia — A CIA-organized military operation captures legendary guerilla Che Guevara. The CIA wants to keep him alive for interrogation, but the Bolivian government executes him to prevent worldwide calls for clemency.<br><br>1969<br><br>Uruguay — The notorious CIA torturer Dan Mitrione arrives in Uruguay, a country torn with political strife. Whereas right-wing forces previously used torture only as a last resort, Mitrione convinces them to use it as a routine, widespread practice. "The precise pain, in the precise place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect," is his motto. The torture techniques he teaches to the death squads rival the Nazis’. He eventually becomes so feared that revolutionaries will kidnap and murder him a year later. <br><br>1970<br><br>Cambodia — The CIA overthrows Prince Sahounek, who is highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He is replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, who immediately throws Cambodian troops into battle. This unpopular move strengthens once minor opposition parties like the Khmer Rouge, which achieves power in 1975 and massacres millions of its own people.<br><br>1971<br><br>Bolivia — After half a decade of CIA-inspired political turmoil, a CIA-backed military coup overthrows the leftist President Juan Torres. In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer will have over 2,000 political opponents arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed.<br><br>Haiti — "Papa Doc" Duvalier dies, leaving his 19-year old son "Baby Doc" Duvalier the dictator of Haiti. His son continues his bloody reign with full knowledge of the CIA.<br><br>1972<br><br>The Case-Zablocki Act — Congress passes an act requiring congressional review of executive agreements. In theory, this should make CIA operations more accountable. In fact, it is only marginally effective.<br><br>Cambodia — Congress votes to cut off CIA funds for its secret war in Cambodia.<br><br>Wagergate Break-in — President Nixon sends in a team of burglars to wiretap Democratic offices at Watergate. The team members have extensive CIA histories, including James McCord, E. Howard Hunt and five of the Cuban burglars. They work for the Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP), which does dirty work like disrupting Democratic campaigns and laundering Nixon’s illegal campaign contributions. CREEP’s activities are funded and organized by another CIA front, the Mullen Company.<br><br>1973<br><br>Chile — The CIA overthrows and assassinates Salvador Allende, Latin America’s first democratically elected socialist leader. The problems begin when Allende nationalizes American-owned firms in Chile. ITT offers the CIA $1 million for a coup (reportedly refused). The CIA replaces Allende with General Augusto Pinochet, who will torture and murder thousands of his own countrymen in a crackdown on labor leaders and the political left.<br><br>CIA begins internal investigations — William Colby, the Deputy Director for Operations, orders all CIA personnel to report any and all illegal activities they know about. This information is later reported to Congress.<br><br>Watergate Scandal — The CIA’s main collaborating newspaper in America, The Washington Post, reports Nixon’s crimes long before any other newspaper takes up the subject. The two reporters, Woodward and Bernstein, make almost no mention of the CIA’s many fingerprints all over the scandal. It is later revealed that Woodward was a Naval intelligence briefer to the White House, and knows many important intelligence figures, including General Alexander Haig. His main source, "Deep Throat," is probably one of those.<br><br>CIA Director Helms Fired — President Nixon fires CIA Director Richard Helms for failing to help cover up the Watergate scandal. Helms and Nixon have always disliked each other. The new CIA director is William Colby, who is relatively more open to CIA reform.<br><br>1974<br><br>CHAOS exposed — Pulitzer prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh publishes a story about Operation CHAOS, the domestic surveillance and infiltration of anti-war and civil rights groups in the U.S. The story sparks national outrage.<br><br>Angleton fired — Congress holds hearings on the illegal domestic spying efforts of James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s chief of counterintelligence. His efforts included mail-opening campaigns and secret surveillance of war protesters. The hearings result in his dismissal from the CIA.<br><br>House clears CIA in Watergate — The House of Representatives clears the CIA of any complicity in Nixon’s Watergate break-in.<br><br>The Hughes Ryan Act — Congress passes an amendment requiring the president to report nonintelligence CIA operations to the relevant congressional committees in a timely fashion.<br><br>1975<br><br>Australia — The CIA helps topple the democratically elected, left-leaning government of Prime Minister Edward Whitlam. The CIA does this by giving an ultimatum to its Governor-General, John Kerr. Kerr, a longtime CIA collaborator, exercises his constitutional right to dissolve the Whitlam government. The Governor-General is a largely ceremonial position appointed by the Queen; the Prime Minister is democratically elected. The use of this archaic and never-used law stuns the nation.<br><br>Angola — Eager to demonstrate American military resolve after its defeat in Vietnam, Henry Kissinger launches a CIA-backed war in Angola. Contrary to Kissinger’s assertions, Angola is a country of little strategic importance and not seriously threatened by communism. The CIA backs the brutal leader of UNITAS, Jonas Savimbi. This polarizes Angolan politics and drives his opponents into the arms of Cuba and the Soviet Union for survival. Congress will cut off funds in 1976, but the CIA is able to run the war off the books until 1984, when funding is legalized again. This entirely pointless war kills over 300,000 Angolans.<br><br>"The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence" — Victor Marchetti and John Marks publish this whistle-blowing history of CIA crimes and abuses. Marchetti has spent 14 years in the CIA, eventually becoming an executive assistant to the Deputy Director of Intelligence. Marks has spent five years as an intelligence official in the State Department.<br><br>"Inside the Company" — Philip Agee publishes a diary of his life inside the CIA. Agee has worked in covert operations in Latin America during the 60s, and details the crimes in which he took part.<br><br>Congress investigates CIA wrong-doing — Public outrage compels Congress to hold hearings on CIA crimes. Senator Frank Church heads the Senate investigation ("The Church Committee"), and Representative Otis Pike heads the House investigation. (Despite a 98 percent incumbency reelection rate, both Church and Pike are defeated in the next elections.) The investigations lead to a number of reforms intended to increase the CIA’s accountability to Congress, including the creation of a standing Senate committee on intelligence. However, the reforms prove ineffective, as the Iran/Contra scandal will show. It turns out the CIA can control, deal with or sidestep Congress with ease.<br><br>The Rockefeller Commission — In an attempt to reduce the damage done by the Church Committee, President Ford creates the "Rockefeller Commission" to whitewash CIA history and propose toothless reforms. The commission’s namesake, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, is himself a major CIA figure. Five of the commission’s eight members are also members of the Council on Foreign Relations, a CIA-dominated organization.<br><br>1979<br><br>Iran — The CIA fails to predict the fall of the Shah of Iran, a longtime CIA puppet, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalists who are furious at the CIA’s backing of SAVAK, the Shah’s bloodthirsty secret police. In revenge, the Muslims take 52 Americans hostage in the U.S. embassy in Tehran. <br><br>Afghanistan — The Soviets invade Afghanistan. The CIA immediately begins supplying arms to any faction willing to fight the occupying Soviets. Such indiscriminate arming means that when the Soviets leave Afghanistan, civil war will erupt. Also, fanatical Muslim extremists now possess state-of-the-art weaponry. One of these is Sheik Abdel Rahman, who will become involved in the World Trade Center bombing in New York.<br><br>El Salvador — An idealistic group of young military officers, repulsed by the massacre of the poor, overthrows the right-wing government. However, the U.S. compels the inexperienced officers to include many of the old guard in key positions in their new government. Soon, things are back to "normal" — the military government is repressing and killing poor civilian protesters. Many of the young military and civilian reformers, finding themselves powerless, resign in disgust.<br><br>Nicaragua — Anastasios Samoza II, the CIA-backed dictator, falls. The Marxist Sandinistas take over government, and they are initially popular because of their commitment to land and anti-poverty reform. Samoza had a murderous and hated personal army called the National Guard. Remnants of the Guard will become the Contras, who fight a CIA-backed guerilla war against the Sandinista government throughout the 1980s.<br><br>1980<br><br>El Salvador — The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, pleads with President Carter "Christian to Christian" to stop aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Shortly afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolves into civil war, with the peasants in the hills fighting against the military government. The CIA and U.S. Armed Forces supply the government with overwhelming military and intelligence superiority. CIA-trained death squads roam the countryside, committing atrocities like that of El Mazote in 1982, where they massacre between 700 and 1000 men, women and children. By 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans will be killed.<br><br>1981<br><br>Iran/Contra Begins — The CIA begins selling arms to Iran at high prices, using the profits to arm the Contras fighting the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. President Reagan vows that the Sandinistas will be "pressured" until "they say ‘uncle.’" The CIA’s Freedom Fighter’s Manual disbursed to the Contras includes instruction on economic sabotage, propaganda, extortion, bribery, blackmail, interrogation, torture, murder and political assassination.<br><br>1983<br><br>Honduras — The CIA gives Honduran military officers the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983, which teaches how to torture people. Honduras’ notorious "Battalion 316" then uses these techniques, with the CIA’s full knowledge, on thousands of leftist dissidents. At least 184 are murdered.<br><br>1984<br><br>The Boland Amendment — The last of a series of Boland Amendments is passed. These amendments have reduced CIA aid to the Contras; the last one cuts it off completely. However, CIA Director William Casey is already prepared to "hand off" the operation to Colonel Oliver North, who illegally continues supplying the Contras through the CIA’s informal, secret, and self-financing network. This includes "humanitarian aid" donated by Adolph Coors and William Simon, and military aid funded by Iranian arms sales.<br><br>1986<br><br>Eugene Hasenfus — Nicaragua shoots down a C-123 transport plane carrying military supplies to the Contras. The lone survivor, Eugene Hasenfus, turns out to be a CIA employee, as are the two dead pilots. The airplane belongs to Southern Air Transport, a CIA front. The incident makes a mockery of President Reagan’s claims that the CIA is not illegally arming the Contras.<br><br>Iran/Contra Scandal — Although the details have long been known, the Iran/Contra scandal finally captures the media’s attention in 1986. Congress holds hearings, and several key figures (like Oliver North) lie under oath to protect the intelligence community. CIA Director William Casey dies of brain cancer before Congress can question him. All reforms enacted by Congress after the scandal are purely cosmetic.<br><br>Haiti — Rising popular revolt in Haiti means that "Baby Doc" Duvalier will remain "President for Life" only if he has a short one. The U.S., which hates instability in a puppet country, flies the despotic Duvalier to the South of France for a comfortable retirement. The CIA then rigs the upcoming elections in favor of another right-wing military strongman. However, violence keeps the country in political turmoil for another four years. The CIA tries to strengthen the military by creating the National Intelligence Service (SIN), which suppresses popular revolt through torture and assassination.<br><br>1989<br><br>Panama — The U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator of its own making, General Manuel Noriega. Noriega has been on the CIA’s payroll since 1966, and has been transporting drugs with the CIA’s knowledge since 1972. By the late 80s, Noriega’s growing independence and intransigence have angered Washington… so out he goes.<br><br>1990<br><br>Haiti — Competing against 10 comparatively wealthy candidates, leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. After only eight months in power, however, the CIA-backed military deposes him. More military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. As popular opinion calls for Aristide’s return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign painting the courageous priest as mentally unstable.<br><br>1991<br><br>The Gulf War — The U.S. liberates Kuwait from Iraq. But Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, is another creature of the CIA. With U.S. encouragement, Hussein invaded Iran in 1980. During this costly eight-year war, the CIA built up Hussein’s forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence, training and financial backing. This cemented Hussein’s power at home, allowing him to crush the many internal rebellions that erupted from time to time, sometimes with poison gas. It also gave him all the military might he needed to conduct further adventurism — in Kuwait, for example.<br><br>The Fall of the Soviet Union — The CIA fails to predict this most important event of the Cold War. This suggests that it has been so busy undermining governments that it hasn’t been doing its primary job: gathering and analyzing information. The fall of the Soviet Union also robs the CIA of its reason for existence: fighting communism. This leads some to accuse the CIA of intentionally failing to predict the downfall of the Soviet Union. Curiously, the intelligence community’s budget is not significantly reduced after the demise of communism.<br><br>1992<br><br>Economic Espionage — In the years following the end of the Cold War, the CIA is increasingly used for economic espionage. This involves stealing the technological secrets of competing foreign companies and giving them to American ones. Given the CIA’s clear preference for dirty tricks over mere information gathering, the possibility of serious criminal behavior is very great indeed.<br><br>1993<br><br>Haiti — The chaos in Haiti grows so bad that President Clinton has no choice but to remove the Haitian military dictator, Raoul Cedras, on threat of U.S. invasion. The U.S. occupiers do not arrest Haiti’s military leaders for crimes against humanity, but instead ensure their safety and rich retirements. Aristide is returned to power only after being forced to accept an agenda favorable to the country’s ruling class.<br><br>EPILOGUE<br><br>In a speech before the CIA celebrating its 50th anniversary, President Clinton said: "By necessity, the American people will never know the full story of your courage."<br><br>Clinton’s is a common defense of the CIA: namely, the American people should stop criticizing the CIA because they don’t know what it really does. This, of course, is the heart of the problem in the first place. An agency that is above criticism is also above moral behavior and reform. Its secrecy and lack of accountability allows its corruption to grow unchecked.<br><br>Furthermore, Clinton’s statement is simply untrue. The history of the agency is growing painfully clear, especially with the declassification of historical CIA documents. We may not know the details of specific operations, but we do know, quite well, the general behavior of the CIA. These facts began emerging nearly two decades ago at an ever-quickening pace. Today we have a remarkably accurate and consistent picture, repeated in country after country, and verified from countless different directions.<br><br>The CIA’s response to this growing knowledge and criticism follows a typical historical pattern. (Indeed, there are remarkable parallels to the Medieval Church’s fight against the Scientific Revolution.) The first journalists and writers to reveal the CIA’s criminal behavior were harassed and censored if they were American writers, and tortured and murdered if they were foreigners. (See Philip Agee’s On the Run for an example of early harassment.) However, over the last two decades the tide of evidence has become overwhelming, and the CIA has found that it does not have enough fingers to plug every hole in the dike. This is especially true in the age of the Internet, where information flows freely among millions of people. Since censorship is impossible, the Agency must now defend itself with apologetics. Clinton’s "Americans will never know" defense is a prime example.<br><br>Another common apologetic is that "the world is filled with unsavory characters, and we must deal with them if we are to protect American interests at all." There are two things wrong with this. First, it ignores the fact that the CIA has regularly spurned alliances with defenders of democracy, free speech and human rights, preferring the company of military dictators and tyrants. The CIA had moral options available to them, but did not take them. <br><br>Second, this argument begs several questions. The first is: "Which American interests?" The CIA has courted right-wing dictators because they allow wealthy Americans to exploit the country’s cheap labor and resources. But poor and middle-class Americans pay the price whenever they fight the wars that stem from CIA actions, from Vietnam to the Gulf War to Panama. The second begged question is: "Why should American interests come at the expense of other peoples’ human rights?"<br><br>The CIA should be abolished, its leadership dismissed and its relevant members tried for crimes against humanity. Our intelligence community should be rebuilt from the ground up, with the goal of collecting and analyzing information. As for covert action, there are two moral options. The first one is to eliminate covert action completely. But this gives jitters to people worried about the Adolf Hitlers of the world. So a second option is that we can place covert action under extensive and true democratic oversight. For example, a bipartisan Congressional Committee of 40 members could review and veto all aspects of CIA operations upon a majority or super-majority vote. Which of these two options is best may be the subject of debate, but one thing is clear: like dictatorship, like monarchy, unaccountable covert operations should die like the dinosaurs they are.<br><br>Endnotes:<br><br>1. All history concerning CIA intervention in foreign countries is summarized from William Blum’s encyclopedic work, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions since World War II (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995). Sources for domestic CIA operations come from Jonathan Vankin and John Whalen’s The 60 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time (Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1997).<br><br>2. Coleman McCarthy, "The Consequences of Covert Tactics" Washington Post, December 13, 1987.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://home.att.net/~Resurgence/CIAtimeline.html" target="top">Link</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1953 - Operation Ajax

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:10 pm

Very good post.<br><br>A little bit more detail:<br><br>1953<br>Operation Ajax (1953) (officially TP-AJAX) was an Anglo-American covert operation to overthrow the democratically chosen government of Iran and Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and restore the exiled dictator Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to the throne.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Reasons</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Rationale for the intervention included Mossadegh's socialist rhetoric and his nationalization, without compensation, of the oil industry which was previously operated by the Anglo- Iranian Oil Company. The newly state-owned oil companies saw a sharp drop in productivity and, consequently, exports; this resulted in the Abadan Crisis, a situation that was further aggravated by a British-imposed economic blockade intended to coerce Mossadegh into reprivatization. In addition, the appropriation of the companies resulted in Western allegations that Mossadegh was a Communist and suspicions that Iran was in danger of falling under the influences of the neighboring Soviet Union. But Mossadegh refused to back down under international pressure.<br><br>A significant reason for the coup was an oil deal whereby the UK and the U.S. divided Iranian oil while giving minor pieces to Dutch and French interests. For the U.S., another important factor was Iran's border with the Soviet Union. A pro-American Iran under the Shah would give the U.S. a double strategic advantage in the ensuing Cold War, as a NATO alliance was already in effect with the government of Turkey, also bordering the USSR.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Planning</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>In planning the operation, the CIA organized a guerrilla force in case the Stalinist Tudeh Party seized power as a result of the chaos created by Operation Ajax. According to formerly "Top Secret" documents released by the National Security Archive, Undersecretary of State Walter Smith reported that the CIA had reached an agreement with Qashqai tribal leaders in southern Iran to establish a clandestine safe haven from which U.S.-funded guerrillas and intelligence agents could operate.<br><br>Operation Ajax was the first time the Central Intelligence Agency orchestrated a plot to overthrow a democratically-elected government. The success of this operation, and its relatively low cost, encouraged the CIA to successfully carry out a similar operation in Guatemala a year later. However, many historians argue that dissatisfaction with the reinstalled Shah led directly to the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. Western countries have raised serious concerns about its potential development of nuclear weapons and continuing support for anti-Israeli Islamic militant groups, particularly the Lebanese Hezbollah.<br><br>The leader of Operation Ajax was Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., a senior CIA agent, and grandson of the former President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. While formal leadership was vested in Kim Roosevelt the project was designed and executed by Donald Wilber, a career contract CIA agent and acclaimed author of books on Iran, Afghanistan and Ceylon.<br><br><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Ajax">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Ajax</a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>The CIA document</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>The document shows that:<br><br>Britain, fearful of Iran's plans to nationalize its oil industry, came up with the idea for the coup in 1952 and pressed the United States to mount a joint operation to remove the prime minister.<br><br>The C.I.A. and S.I.S., the British intelligence service, handpicked Gen. Fazlollah Zahedi to succeed Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and covertly funneled $5 million to General Zahedi's regime two days after the coup prevailed.<br><br>Iranians working for the C.I.A. and posing as Communists harassed religious leaders and staged the bombing of one cleric's home in a campaign to turn the country's Islamic religious community against Mossadegh's government.<br><br>The shah's cowardice nearly killed the C.I.A. operation. Fearful of risking his throne, the Shah repeatedly refused to sign C.I.A.-written royal decrees to change the government. The agency arranged for the shah's twin sister, Princess Ashraf Pahlevi, and Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the father of the Desert Storm commander, to act as intermediaries to try to keep him from wilting under pressure. He still fled the country just before the coup succeeded.<br><br><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href="http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html">www.nytimes.com/library/w...index.html</a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Aftermath</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Iran<br>from the book<br>The CIAs Greatest Hits<br>by Mark Zepezauer<br><br>Undaunted, the CIA paid for pro-Shah street demonstrators, who seized a radio station and announced that the Shah was on his way back and that Mossadegh had been deposed. In reality, it took a nine-hour tank battle in the streets of Tehran, killing hundreds, to remove Mossadegh.<br><br>Compared to the bloodshed to follow, however, that was just a drop in the bucket. In 1976, Amnesty International concluded that the Shah's CIA-trained security force, SAVAK, had the worst human rights record on the planet, and that the number and variety of torture techniques the CIA had taught SAVAK were "beyond belief."<br><br>Inevitably, in 1979, the Iranian people overthrew the bloodstained Shah, with great bitterness and hatred toward the US for installing him and backing him all those years. The radical fundamentalist regime that rules Iran today could never have found popular support without the CIA's 1953 coup and the repression that followed.<br><br><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href="http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Iran_CIAHits.html">www.thirdworldtraveler.co...AHits.html</a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Ajax">demopedia.democraticunder...ation_Ajax</a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1953 - MK-ULTRA

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:14 pm

Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind control research program lasting from the 1953 through the 1970s. It was first brought to wide public attention by the U.S. Congress (in the form of the Church Committee) and a presidential commission (known as the Rockefeller Commission) and also to the U.S. Senate. It was inspired by North Korea’s brainwashing program.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Revelation below</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>"The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over 30 universities and institutions were involved in an 'extensive testing and experimentation' program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens 'at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign.' Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to 'unwitting subjects in social situations.' At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers."<br>Senator Kennedy.<br>U.S. SENATE, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 3, 1977<br>SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE,<br>AND SUBCOMMITTEE ON HEALTH<br>AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH<br>OF THE COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES<br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://img19.echo.cx/img19/7420/mkultralsddoc2bx.jpg"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Mindfield</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>The CIA and Its Secret Experiments with MKULTRA & Germ Warfare.<br>America’s Great State Secret <br>by Gordon Thomas<br><br>MINDFIELD<br><br>* Sensational never-seen-before documents from inside the White House, CIA and other agencies.<br>* Reveals the documentary evidence that links US Vice-President Dick Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to the cover-up of the death of top CIA scientist, Frank Olson.<br>* Explains how the CIA financed a ruthless and systematic assault of the human psyche – using a British-born psychiatrist to spearhead the assault.<br>* Names other world renowned physicians who were involved in the most sinister research programme ever created by any United States government – and its secret partner – the British government.<br>* Reveals how a woman was programmed to become a CIA assassin.<br>* Describes how a CIA chemist was murdered by his own colleagues after he had turned to the one man he thought he could trust – a London psychiatrist engaged in similar work.<br>* Reveals how “expendables” – the CIA generic name for those selected for killing – were secretly murdered after they had been experimented on in Europe.<br>* Describes how the CIA used prostitutes and mental patients in other experiments.<br>* Explains how the CIA deliberately pioneered the drug culture whose effects are still with us.<br>* Reveals how the CIA agent selected to monitor the experiments eventually died at the hands of a physician steeped in the methods perfected by the CIA.<br>* Identifies how the CIA experiments are still carried on in secret establishments in Israel and China.<br>* Uncovers CIA terminal experiments on Vietcong prisoners in Vietnam.<br>* Publishes the CIA Manual of Assassination – a shocking document describing how to commit state- approved murder.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.gordonthomas.ie/mindfield.htm">www.gordonthomas.ie/mindfield.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>1977 Senate MKULTRA Hearing</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>In June 1977, a rare cache of MKULTRA documents were discovered, which had escaped destruction by the CIA. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence held a hearing on August 3, 1977, to question CIA officials on the newly-discovered documents. The complete 171-page record is included here, including testimony and dozens of MKULTRA documents on various subprojects.<br><br>MKULTRA Subproject No. 83<br><br>This declassified CIA memo was written on April 18, 1958 by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, chief of the Chemical Division of the agency's Technical Services Staff. Gottlieb, who oversaw many of the MKULTRA projects, reviewed covert CIA support for research studies of "controversial and misunderstood" areas of psychology such as hypnosis, truth drugs, psychic powers and subliminal persuasion.<br><br>MKULTRA Hypnosis Experiments<br><br>This memo, written by the CIA's Sidney Gottlieb, is one of the earliest records available from the MKULTRA project. One month after CIA Director Allen Dulles authorized the program, Gottlieb writes of a "planned series of five major experiments" which are to examine "hypnotically induced anxieties," the "relationship of personality to hypnosis," and other matters of the hypnotized mind.<br><br>MKULTRA and LSD<br><br>This June 1953 document records Dr. Sidney Gottlieb's approval of an early CIA acid test. "This project will include a continuation of a study of the biochemical, neurophysiological, sociological, and clinical psychiatric aspects of L.S.D.," the CIA scientist writes.<br><br>MKULTRA Trickery<br><br>This document reveals the CIA's concern with covert means of administering the mind- and behavior-altering substances researched in MKULTRA projects. In 1953, the Agency commissioned a "manual on trickery," to be authored by a prominent magician, who described ways to conduct "tricks with pills" and other substances. MKULTRA Materials and Methods<br><br>This 1955 CIA document reviews the Agency's research and development of a shocking list of mind-altering substances and methods, including "materials which will render the indication of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness," and "physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use."<br><br>LINKS TO DETAILS...<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.hiddenmysteries.com/freebook/mk/">www.hiddenmysteries.com/freebook/mk/</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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Re: 1954 Operation PBSUCCESS (Guatemala)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:19 pm

Operation PBSUCCESS (1954) was the CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán. President Guzman tried to break the monopoly of the United Fruit Company. Allen Dulles, the CIA director at the time, and his brother John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State had both worked in United Fruit Company.<br><br>The U.S. State Department and United Fruit Company embarked on a major public relations campaign to convince the American people and the rest of the U.S. government that Guatemala was a Soviet "satellite".<br><br>In 1952 a similar operation (Operation PBFORTUNE) on a smaller scale was executed which failed.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Training</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>In 1953 a small group of upto 140 men were send to Honduras for training under Castillo Armas who later became President. Mercenaries were recruited throughout Central America for $300.00 / month.<br><br>In February 1954 training was initiated at Momotomobito, an island in Lake Managua, Nicaragua and at Somoza Estate of El Tamarindo, Costa Rico. Al Haney was summoned from Seoul, Korea to head up the effort.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Control</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>E. Howard Hunt was the political action officer. Opa-Locka and Washington, D.C. were dual headquarters in Operation PBSUCCESS. Frank Wisner established a seperate planning unit with its own communication, financial and covert agent support. The unit had the authority to requisition confidental funds. Directorate of Intelligence and the State Department was excluded in the planning with the exception of Allen Dulles and undersecretary Smith.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Logistics and finance</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>A dummy arms company called International Armament Company (Interarmco), a "surplus" arms dealer, was setup to send weapons to the rebels in Nicaragua and Honduras. Various other companies were also set up. National Guard planes were rented at $1 per plane. About a dozen planes were used.<br><br>The New York Times reports on 11/27/78 that the investment banking firm of Schroders, Ltd - where Allen Dulles used to work as well - is used to handle the funds. This bank is also used for the 1953 coup in Iran and the 1954 coup in Guatemala.<br><br>Operation PBSUCCESS and the operation to break the left winged organized strikes in France for United Fruit cost $33 million ($29 million from the US Government) - ten times the budget for Civil Rights. ( Z Magazine 11/88 )<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>PR warfare with political action</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>PBSUCCESS, authorized by President Eisenhower in August 1953, carried a $2.7 million budget for "pychological warfare and political action" and "subversion," among the other components of a small paramilitary war. But, according to the CIA's own internal study of the agency's so-called "K program," up until the day Arbenz resigned on June 27, 1954, "the option of assassination was still being considered."<br><br>While the power of the CIA's psychological-war, codenamed "Operation Sherwood," against Arbenz rendered that option unnecessary, the last stage of PBSUCCESS called for "roll-up of Communists and collaborators." Although Arbenz and his top aides were able to flee the country, after the CIA installed Castillo Armas in power, hundreds of Guatemalans were rounded up and killed. Between 1954 and 1990, human rights groups estimate, the repressive operatives of successive military regimes murdered more than 100,000 civilians.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/NSA112A.html">www.globalresearch.ca/articles/NSA112A.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>E. Howard Hunt is the architect Operation PBSUCCESS<br>Interview at: <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://slate.com/Default.aspx?id=2107718">slate.com/Default.aspx?id=2107718</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>CNN Cold War - Interviews: Howard Hunt<br><br>President Ydigoras Fuentes of Guatemala was good enough to give our Cuban exiles a training area in two training areas in his country, one in the mountains, and then at Roberto Alejos' plantation we had an unused airstrip that he gave over to us, which we put into first-class condition for our fighter aircraft and our supply aircraft, and we trained Cuban paratroopers there. And the brigade never numbered more than about 1,500, which was 10 times more than Castillo Armas commanded. ..<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/interviews/hunt/">www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/interviews/hunt/</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Targeted Assassinations</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Among the documents found in the training files of Operation PBSUCCESS and declassified by the Agency is a "Study of Assassination." A how-to guide book in the art of political killing, the 19-page manual offers detailed descriptions of the procedures, instruments, and implementation of assassination.<br><br>"The simplest local tools are often much the most efficient means of assassination," counsels the study. "A hammer, axe, wrench, screw driver, fire poker, kitchen knife, lamp stand, or anything hard, heavy and handy will suffice." For an assassin using "edge weapons," the manual notes in cold clinical terms, "puncture wounds of the body cavity may not be reliable unless the heart is reached.... Absolute reliability is obtained by severing the spinal cord in the cervical region."<br><br>The manual also notes that to provide plausible denial, "no assassination instructions should ever be written or recorded." Murder, the drafters state, "is not morally justifiable," and "persons who are morally squeamish should not attempt it."<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/NSA112A.html">www.globalresearch.ca/articles/NSA112A.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Documents at: <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB4/cia-guatemala2_1.html">www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB4/cia-guatemala2_1.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Operation Hardrock</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Operation Hardrock was launched in May 1954 in support of Operation PBSUCCESS. Eisenhower ordered U.S. Navy to search all ships, including European, for arms bound for Guatemala. Of course no arms were ever found, but the U.S. Navy vessels patrolling the gulf of Honduras had an immense psychological impact on the Guatemalan military.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Operation PBFORTUNE</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Operation PBFORTUNE was authorized by Truman, a scheme to send weaponry in a United Fruit Company ship to Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua to use in Guatemala. The operation was cancelled by intervention of David Bruce in 1952. Officers in the Guatemalan army were approached and smuggled in small arms plus $64,000 from United Fruit Company.<br><br>On March 23 1993, 200 men attacked Salama and held it briefly before being defeated by the Guatemalan army.<br><br>Operation PBFORTUNE was launced in the fall of 1952 with the intention of arming Castillo Armas who was in Honduras. Nicaragua's Somoza had convinced Truman's military aide, Colonel Mara, that Armas could overthrow Arbenz. This despite CIA report in June indicating skepticism of Armas' claims. The CIA noted that army defection would be crucial for Operation PBFORTUNE and there was no indication that the army would defect. Yet CIA director Walter Smith ordered Directorate of Operations to proceed with the plan. The operation was halted when Dean Acheson learned of the plan. A United Fruit freighter carrying arms was diverted to Panama where the arms were unloaded.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Success or failure</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Even though the coup attempt succeeded in 1954 it was followed by years of continued unrest. The CIA was poorly informed throughout much of the operation. On 24 June 1954, one day prior to the Army's defection, the CIA was pessimistic about the chances for success. CIA agents had no experience in Central America and could not effectively inflitrate the army. No contingency plans existed if the attempted coup should have failed.<br><br>CIA inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick was excluded from Operation PBSUCCESS. He along with Richard Bissell noted that no post-operation examination was ever made to determine the causes of the operation's apparant success. This overinflated the CIA confidence which ultimately lead to the Bay of Pigs.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_PBSUCCESS">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_PBSUCCESS</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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Re: 1959 Operation 40 (Disruption of Cuba)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:22 pm

On 11th December (1959), Colonel J. C. King, chief of CIA's Western Hemisphere Division, sent a confidential memorandum to Allen W. Dulles, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency. King argued that in Cuba there existed a "far-left dictatorship, which if allowed to remain will encourage similar actions against U.S. holdings in other Latin American countries."<br><br>As a result of this memorandum Dulles established Operation 40. It obtained this name because originally there were 40 agents involved in the operation. Later this was expanded to 70 agents. The group was presided over by Richard Nixon. Tracy Barnes became operating officer of what was also called the Cuban Task Force. The first meeting chaired by Barnes took place in his office on 18th January, 1960, and was attended by David Atlee Phillips, E. Howard Hunt, Jack Esterline, and Frank Bender.<br><br>On 4th March, 1960, La Coubre, a ship flying a Belgian flag, exploded in Havana Bay. It was loaded with arms and ammunition that had been sent to help defend Cuba's revolution from its enemies. The explosion killed 75 people and over 200 were injured. Fabian Escalante, an officer of the Department of State Security (G-2), later claimed that this was the first successful act carried out by Operation 40.<br><br>One member, Frank Sturgis claimed: "this assassination group (Operation 40) would upon orders, naturally, assassinate either members of the military or the political parties of the foreign country that you were going to infiltrate, and if necessary some of your own members who were suspected of being foreign agents... We were concentrating strictly in Cuba at that particular time."<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKoperation40.htm">www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKoperation40.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://xs34.xs.to/pics/05254/JFKgoss2.jpg"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br>This photograph was taken in a nightclub in Mexico City on 22nd January, 1963. It is believed that the men in the photograph are all members of Operation 40. Closest to the camera on the left is Felix Rodriguez. Next to him is Porter Goss and Barry Seal. Others in the picture are Alberto 'Loco' Blanco (3rd right) and Jorgo Robreno (4th right).<br><br>There is some dispute about who attempting to hide his face with his coat. According to John Simkin ( http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk ) it is Tosh Plumlee and according Hopsicker ( http://www.madcowprod.com/ ) it is Frank Sturgis.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Operation 40 and George H.W. Bush</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Jim Marrs: During that time, during the time of the Bay of Pigs, while you were training and moving around in the Caribbean, No Name Key and all that, did you ever hear the name George Herbert Walker Bush?<br><br>James Files: Oh Yeah!<br><br>Jim Marrs: What was his role?<br><br>James Files: George Herbert Walker Bush. I don't know if, I think a lot of people are not going to believe this, but he worked for the CIA back as early as 1961 that I know of.<br><br>Jim Marrs: How did he work? What did he do?<br><br>James Files: I don't know all he did, but he did a lot of recruiting work. I know he was there at the beginning for what we called Group 40, a special operations group, Group 40. If you wonder what Group 40 was, an assassination group.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.jfkmurdersolved.com/bush2.htm">www.jfkmurdersolved.com/bush2.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Operation 40 and Howard Hughes</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination<br>Evidence of link between Nazis still in operation after World War II to the still unsolved murder of John F. Kennedy<br>by Mae Brussell<br><br>Chicago Mafia boss Sam Giancana was busy with more than his love life; he was hired to form assassination teams to go after Fidel Castro. The man who retained him was Robert Maheu, a former FBI and CIA operative. It was a classic cutoff. Maheu never mentioned that the CIA was behind it. He intimated to Giancana that wealthy Cuban exiles were providing the funds. This sounded plausible, since Maheu was Howard Hughes' right-hand man.<br><br>Giancana put his Los Angeles lieutenant, Johnny Roselli, in charge of the hit squads. In 1978 when the House Select Committee questioned him, Roselli hinted that his assignment was aimed at Kennedy as well as Castro. Shortly afterward, his body was found floating in an oil drum off the Florida coast. Giancana never got a chance to testify. He was shot to death in his Chicago home.<br><br>The Howard Hughes organization, used as a cover for the kill-Castro conspiracy, (Hughes thought it was a patriotic idea) has long retained Carl Byoir Associates as its public relations arm. Throughout the war Byoir represented nazi bankers and industrialists and the I.G. Farben interests. One of his clients was Ernest Schmitz, member of the I.G. Farben-Ilgner and the German American Board of Trade. His Information Services was subsidized by the nazi government. George Sylvester Viereck, editor of the German Library of Information, was also in business with Byoir. A lucrative Byoir client was the Frederick Flick Group. Flick, a Nuremberg defendant released by McCloy, was the single greatest power behind the nazi military muscle.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.maebrussell.com/Mae%20Brussell%20Articles/Nazi%20Connection%20to%20JFK%20Assass.html">www.maebrussell.com/Mae%20Brussell%20Articles/ Nazi%20Connection%20to%20JFK%20Assass.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_40">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_40</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i>Edited by: <A HREF=http://p097.ezboard.com/brigorousintuition.showUserPublicProfile?gid=drdebugdu>DrDebugDU</A> at: 7/23/05 11:40 am<br></i>
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Re: 1961 Operation Zapata (Bay of Pigs) (Invasion of Cuba)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:28 pm

On March 17, 1960, President Dwight Eisenhower agreed to start a program to overthrow the Cuban Government. Run by the CIA, this program would train, arm, and recruit Cuban exiles to participate in an invasion of Cuba. [1]The planning was performed under the direction of Allen W. Dulles, and his deputy, Richard Bissell, with the knowledge and approval of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. John F. Kennedy agreed, for security reasons, that the fewer new faces in the government brought into the discussions, the better kept the secret would be. [2]<br><br>The Cuban-exiles later known as Brigade 2506 were first training in JM WAVE, Florida. The CIA decided that it was important to get foreign bases out of sight of the US public opinion. Guatemala where a puppet regime was installed after the 1954 CIA organized coup, popped up on the maps quickly.[3], For several months the brigade of 1400 anti-Castro Cubans was trained in La Democracia, Huehuetenango, a plantation in Guatemala donated by Roberto Alejos [4]. The base codenamed JM-TRAX was intended to train 20 radio operators. Later facilities for 1400 trainees were built and a $1,8 million airfield was established for the supplies send from Opa-Locka in Florida. The government of Guatemala however was getting worried about some many armed foreigners in its country and asked for the Cubans to be removed by the end of April.<br><br>The story also leaked to the New York Times which reported on April 7, 1961 that 5,000 to 6,000 men were recruited to liberate Cuba and that their training was done in Florida (JM TRAX), Louisiana (??) and Guatemala was almost complete.<br><br>CIA liaison officer L. Fletcher Prouty delivered three ships to a CIA agent named George H.W. Bush. [5]. The boats used in the invasion were named Río Escondido, Houston and Barbara. [6]. The operation was code-named "Operation Zapata". The brigade was moved to embarkation point at Puerto Cabeza, Nicaragua. [7]Some people have referred to the operation as Operation Pluto, however the Cubans and the CIA always called it Zapata.<br><br>On April 17, 1961, the invasion was carried by 1500 Cuban exiles known as Brigade 2506. The intent of the attack was to take a beachhead at Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs), establish a government, and gain U.S. recognition. As the invaders began to leave their boats, the Cuban air force attacked. They sunk the Houston and the Río Escondido, cutting off supplies for the invaders. Kennedy was asked for permission to use the U.S. Air Force to destroy the Cuban army's planes. Kennedy only permitted them to give cover to planes flown by exiles, which arrived before the U.S. navy planes, and were consequently shot down. Exact details on the number of dead and captured differ. According to the Museum of Playa Girón, 1,197 exiles were captured. [8]<br><br>Operation Zapata was a failure and became known as the "Bay of Pigs" invasion.<br><br>Shortly after President John F. Kennedy established a commission to investigate the failure and to consider whether the United States should conduct similar covert operations in the future. The commission - chaired by General Maxwell Taylor, Robert Kennedy, Admiral Arleigh Burke and DCI Allen Dulles - produced a highly critical report one of the conclusions was that "the impossibility of running Zapata as a covert operation under CIA should have been recognized" as early as November 1960, five months before the invasion.[9]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Commission</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Shortly after the CIA's botched paramilitary invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, President John F. Kennedy established a commission to investigate the failure and to consider whether the United States should conduct similar covert operations in the future.<br><br>The commission -- chaired by General Maxwell Taylor, but also including the president's brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, Admiral Arleigh Burke and DCI Allen Dulles -- produced a highly critical series of narratives and memoranda, concluding, in part, that "the impossibility of running Zapata as a covert operation under CIA should have been recognized" as early as November 1960, five months before the invasion.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB29/">www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB29/</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB29/dulles.gif"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>The Nixon-Bush Connection</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>In 1988 George H.W. Bush told Congress he knew nothing about the illegal supply flights until 1987, yet Oliver North's diary shows Bush at the first planning meeting Aug. 6, 1985. Bush's "official" log placed him somewhere else. Such double sets of logs are intended to hide Bush's real role in the CIA; to provide him with "plausible deniability." The problem is, it fell apart because too many people, like North and Rodriguez, have kept records that show Bush's CIA role back to the 1961 invasion of Cuba. (Source: The Washington Post, 7/10/90).<br><br>That is exactly how evidence was uncovered placing George Bush working with Felix Rodriguez when JFK was killed. A memo from FBI head J. Edgar Hoover was found, stating that, "Mr. George Bush of the CIA had been briefed on November 23rd, 1963 about the reaction of anti-Castro Cuban exiles in Miami to the assassination of President Kennedy. (Source: The Nation, 8/13/88).<br><br>(...)<br><br>Recently I interviewed former CIA liaison officer L. Fletcher Prouty. He is a consultant for the excellent new movie on how the CIA killed JFK, being made by Oliver Stone. He told me that one of the projects he did for the CIA was in 1961 to deliver US Navy ships from a Navy ship yard to the CIA agents in Guatemala planning the invasion of Cuba. He said he delivered three ships to a CIA agent named George H.W. Bush, who had the 3 ships painted to look like they were civilian ships. That CIA agent then named the 3 ships after: his wife, his home town and his oil company. He named the ships: Barbara, Houston & Zapata. Any book on the history of the Bay of Pigs will prove the names of those 3 ships. Again, this is more finger prints of George Bush's involvement in the Bay of Pigs invasion. Yet Bush denies his role in this great adventure. Why would Bush be so shy about his role in this war? What is the secret? Is there something dirty about this war that Bush & Nixon don't want the public to know about?<br><br>(...)<br><br>In fact, Prescott Bush is credited with creating the winning ticket of Eisenhower-Nixon in 1952.(Source: George Bush, F. Green, Hipocrene, 1988). Newly discovered FBI documents prove that Jack Ruby has been an employee of Richard Nixon since 1947. (...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.sumeria.net/politics/kennedy.html">www.sumeria.net/politics/kennedy.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Bay of Pigs and Watergate</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>On the Watergate tapes, June 23, 1972, referred to in the media as the 'smoking gun' conversation, Nixon and his Chief of Staff, H.R. Haldeman, were discussing how to stop the FBI investigation into the CIA Watergate burglary. They were worried that the investigation would expose their connection to 'the Bay of Pigs thing.' Haldeman, in his book "The Ends of Power", reveals that Nixon always used code words when talking about the 1963 murder of JFK. Haldeman said Nixon would always refer to the assassination as 'the Bay of Pigs'.<br><br>On that transcript we find Nixon discussing the role of George H.W. Bush's partner, Robert Mosbacher, as one of the Texas fundraisers for Nixon. On the tapes Nixon keeps referring to the 'Cubans' and the 'Texans.' The 'Texans' were George H.W. Bush, Mosbacher and Baker. This is another direct link between Bush and evidence linking Nixon and Bush to the Kennedy assassination."<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.meta-religion.com/Secret_societies/Groups/Order_of_Skull/part_7.htm">www.meta-religion.com/Secret_societies/Groups/Order_of_Skull/part_7.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Bay of Pigs and Guatemala</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>JOHNNY WE HARDLY KNEW YE by Kenneth O'Donnell and David Powers, page 305-320<br><br>... The planning had been done over the previous year by CIA people under the direction of Allen W. Dulles, the highly respected head of that agency, and his deputy, Richard Bissell, with the knowledge and approval of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The President agreed, for security reasons, that the fewer new faces in the government brought into the discussions, the better kept the secret would be. He did not mention the project to me until he had given it his final approval, only a few days before the air strike and the landings."<br><br>"The President said then that the plan was so advanced when he came into office in January that it seemed almost impossible to cancel it. The brigade of fourteen hundred anti-Castro Cubans had been in training under CIA officers on a plantation in Guatamala for several months; they were fully armed and eager and ready to go into action. 'If we decided now to call the whole thing off,' the President said, 'I don't know if we could go down there and take the guns away from them.' The President was also under pressure not to postpone the takeoff date of the invasion force any longer. The government of Guatemala was worried about the presence of one thousand four hundred armed foreigners in its country. The President of Guatemala had asked President Kennedy to get the Cubans out of his republic before the end of April, which was then less than two weeks away.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.orwelltoday.com/jfkcubabaypigs.shtml">www.orwelltoday.com/jfkcubabaypigs.shtml</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>The force was Brigade 2506, a unit made up of approximately 1500 Cuban exiles intending to invade their Cuban homeland and outhrow the government of Fidel Castro. On the day of the President's press conference, the Brigade had moved from their training camps in Guatemala to their embarkation port at Puerto Cabeza, Nicaragua. At this point, it is necessary to present some background before describing the execution and the results of Operation Pluto; the attack of a force of Cuban exiles upon their Cuban homeland at the Bahia de Cochinos (The Bay of Pigs).<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/EJR.htm">www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/EJR.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>News broke in American and Mexican newspapers shortly after New Year's Day 1961, that a Cuban attack force known as Brigade 2506 was training on a coffee finca and a refurbished airstrip near Retalhulehu in the mountains of southern Guatemala.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blinvastionabandoned/">www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blinvastionabandoned/</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Alabama Guard</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Wings of Denial The Alabama Air National Guard's Covert Role at the Bay of Pigs Warren Trest and Donald Dodd ISBN 1-58838-021-1 NewSouth Books<br><br>In 1978 ,the CIA secretly awarded the agency’s highest medal to four Alabama Air National Guardsmen who died at the Bay of Pigs 17 years earlier. At the same time, the body of one of these men, Thomas W. "Pete" Ray, was returned from Cuba where it had remained frozen as a war trophy and as evidence of U.S. complicity in the failed 1961 invasion.<br><br>Today, after nearly four decades of government denial, the deeds of these intrepid guardsmen have been made public and their names are memorialized at the CIA’s Wall of Honor in Langley, Virginia. Unveiled in 1997, the marble wall honors agency personnel who gave their lives in the service of their country. Their stories can now be told.<br><br>Drawing upon a variety of sources, including recently declassified documents and personal interviews with guardsmen who were there, the authors have pieced together the heretofore secret story of the Alabama Air National Guard’s clandestine role in the Bay of Pigs invasion. The four guardsmen who died flew with a group of Alabama volunteers to secret CIA bases in Guatemala and Nicaragua to train Cuban exiles to fly B-26 bombers in support of the invasion forces. When the small group of exhausted pilots could no longer sustain the air battle, seven Alabama Guardsmen flew with them into combat on the final day of the invasion in a futile attempt to stave off defeat at the embattled beachhead. This book tells the story of their secret involvement from their recruitment in the fall of 1960 up through the invasion in April 1961.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.blairpub.com/history/wingsofdenial.htm">www.blairpub.com/history/wingsofdenial.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>CIA's Dulles wanted Cuba to ask for Soviet Bloc arms in 1959</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 22, 2001, 12 p.m.<br><br>DOCUMENTS REVEAL CIA'S DULLES WANTED CUBA TO ASK FOR SOVIET BLOC ARMS IN 1959<br><br>BRITISH CRITICIZED U.S. "EFFERVESCENCE AND VIOLENT FEELINGS" ABOUT CUBA<br><br>Cuba expected 6,000 men in the invasion force as of January 1961<br><br>Havana, Cuba: British documents released on the first day of an historic conference on the Bay of Pigs show that CIA Director Allen Dulles hoped that British refusal to sell military items to Cuba would force the Cuban government to request arms from the Soviet bloc, providing a pretext for U.S. intervention.<br><br>The conference - involving former officials of the Kennedy Administration, the CIA, members of Brigade 2506, and Cuban government and military officials - convened today in Havana to begin three days of discussion on one of the most infamous episodes of the Cold War - the April 1961 invasion at the Bay of Pigs.<br><br>In an unprecedented declassification, the Cuban government has also declassified some 480 pages of records relating to the invasion, including intelligence reports on U.S. preparations and Fidel Castro's directives during the battle - records that "shed substantial light on Cuba's ability to repel the invasion," according to National Security Archive Senior Analyst Peter Kornbluh. The National Security Archive at George Washington University is co-sponsoring the event along with the University of Havana and several Cuban government agencies.<br><br>One of the Cuban documents - a January 1961 report on the CIA's clandestine training camps in Central America and Opa-Locka, Florida - shows that Cuban intelligence analysts estimated there were as many as 6,000 CIA "mercenaries" training at a camp in Guatemala, overestimating by far the agency's 1,400-man invasion force.<br><br>CONTINUED w/LINKS...<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/press2.html">www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/press2.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Immediate Causes of Failure of the Operation</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://xs32.xs.to/pics/05231/zapata.jpg"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.internetpirate.com/zapata.htm">www.internetpirate.com/zapata.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>The Aftermath of Bay of Pigs</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography<br>The history of the Harriman-Walker-Bush clan during the 20th century<br>- by Webster Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin<br><br>Chapter 8.2.3: Aftermath of the Bay of Pigs<br><br>SNIP...<br><br>During the days after the Bay of Pigs debacle, Kennedy was deeply suspicious of the intelligence community and of proposals for military escalation in general, including in places like South Vietnam. Kennedy sought to procure an outside, expert opinion on military matters. For this he turned to the former commander in chief of the Southwest Pacific Theatre during World War II, General Douglas MacArthur. Almost ten years ago, a reliable source shared with one of the authors an account of a meeting between Kennedy and MacArthur in which the veteran general warned the young President that there were elements inside the U.S. government who emphatically did not share his patriotic motives, and who were seeking to destroy his administration from within. MacArthur warned that the forces bent on destroying Kennedy were centered in the Wall Street financial community and its various tentacles in the intelligence community.<br><br>It is a matter of public record that Kennedy met with MacArthur in the latter part of April, 1961, after the Bay of Pigs. According to Kennedy aide Theodore Sorenson, MacArthur told Kennedy, "The chickens are coming home to roost, and you happen to have just moved into the chicken house." <10>. At the same meeting, according to Sorenson, MacArthur "warned against the committment of American foot soldiers on the Asian mainland, and the President never forgot this advice." <11>. This point is grudgingly confirmed by Arthur M. Schlesinger, a Kennedy aide who had a vested interest in vilifying MacArthur, who wrote that "MacArthur expressed his old view that anyone wanting to commit American ground forces to the mainland should have his head examined." <12>. MacArthur restated this advice during a second meeting with Kennedy when the General returned from his last trip to the Far East in July, 1961.<br><br>Kennedy valued MacArthur's professional military opinion highly, and used it to keep at arms length those advisers who were arguing for escalation in Laos, Vietnam, and elsewhere. He repeatedly invited those who proposed to send land forces to Asia to convince MacArthur that this would as good idea. If they could convince MacArthur, then he, Kennedy, might also go along.<br><br>At this time, the group proposing escalation in Vietnam (as well as preparing the assassination of President Diem) had a heavy Brown Brothers Harriman / Skull and Bones overtone: the hawks of 1961-63 were Harriman, McGeorge Bundy, William Bundy, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., and some key London oligarchs and theoreticians of counterinsurgency wars. And of course, George H.W. Bush during these years was calling for escalation in Vietnam and challenging Kennedy to "muster the courage" to try a second invasion of Cuba.<br><br>SNIP..<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=BushCh08-2&Entity=HarrimanWA">www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=BushCh08- 2&Entity=HarrimanWA</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Books: Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report by Peter Kornbluh ISBN 1-56584-494-7<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Bay_of_Pigs">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Bay_of_Pigs</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.cuba-junky.com/cuba/pigs-bay.html">www.cuba-junky.com/cuba/pigs-bay.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.orwelltoday.com/jfkcubabaypigs.shtml">www.orwelltoday.com/jfkcubabaypigs.shtml</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(3) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.urrib2000.narod.ru/ArticGiron2.html">www.urrib2000.narod.ru/ArticGiron2.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(4) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.american-buddha.com/invisiblegov.3.htm">www.american-buddha.com/invisiblegov.3.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(5) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.sumeria.net/politics/kennedy.html">www.sumeria.net/politics/kennedy.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(6) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.internetpirate.com/barbaraj.htm">www.internetpirate.com/barbaraj.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(7) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/EJR.htm">www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/EJR.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(8) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.cuba-junky.com/cuba/pigs-bay.html">www.cuba-junky.com/cuba/pigs-bay.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(9) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB29/">www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB29/</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1961 Assassination of Rafael Trujillo

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:31 pm

General Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (October 24, 1891 – May 30, 1961) was the ruler of the Dominican Republic from 1930 until 1961, ruling as president (1930–1938, 1942–1952) and as essentially an unelected dictator.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafael_Trujillo">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafael_Trujillo</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Assassination</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>President Dwight Eisenhower began to change his opinion of Trujillo after the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista by Fidel Castro in January, 1959. Eisenhower observed that: "It's certain that American public opinion won't condemn Castro until we have moved against Trujillo."<br><br>The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) also warned Eisenhower that Trujillo was so unpopular in Dominican Republic that it was only a matter of time before he became the victim of a left-wing revolution. Therefore it was suggested that the CIA should become involved in replacing him with a more suitable pro-American supporter. CIA's Black Operations (Executive Action) was brought in to remove Trujillo.<br><br>This plan had the support of President Romulo Betancourt of Venezuela. He told Eisenhower: "If you don't eliminate him, we will invade". A training camp was setup in Venezuela by Dominican exiles flown there from the United States and Puerto Rica by the CIA. This group had been recruited from the privileged sectors of Dominican society in order to make sure that the overthrow of Trujillo did not result in the establishment of a communist government.<br><br>Rafael Trujillo was assassinated on 30th May 1961 when his car was machine-gunned by a group of men on a quiet road outside the capital. Before the CIA could get their people in power, Rafael Trujillo Jr. rushed home from France and installed himself as the country's new ruler. Over the next six months he executed all his known opponents.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKtrujillo.htm">www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKtrujillo.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Aftermath</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Dominican Republic 1960-1966<br>Saving democracy from communism by getting rid of democracy<br>excerpted from the book<br>Killing Hope<br>by William Blum<br><br>(...) Resentment spilled over into the streets. By October, the protests were occurring daily and were being put down by tanks; students were shot dead by government troops. The United States began to make moves, for the situation in the streets and high places of the government was anarchic enough, Washington feared, to provide an opening for the proverbial (and seemingly magical) "communist takeover", although, in fact, the left in the Dominican Republic was manifestly insignificant from years of repression.<br><br>American diplomats met in the capital city with the Trujillo clan and Dominican military leaders and bluntly told them that US military power would, if necessary, be used to compel the formation of a provisional government headed by Joachin Balaguer until elections could be held. Balaguer had been closely tied to the Trujillo family for decades, was serving as president under Trujillo at the time of the assassination, and had remained in the same capacity under Ramfis, but he was not regarded as a threat to continue the tyranny As Kennedy put it: "Balaguer is our only tool. The anticommunist liberals aren't strong enough. We must use our influence to take Balaguer along the road to democracy." ...<br><br>To make certain that the Dominicans got the message, a US naval task force of eight ships with 1,800 Marines aboard appeared off the Dominican coast on 19 November, just outside the three-mile limit but in plain sight of Ciudad Trujillo. Spanish-language broadcasts from the offshore ships warned that the Marines were prepared to come ashore; while overhead, American jet fighters streaked along the coastline. Brigadier General Pedro Rodriguez Echevarria, a key military figure, was persuaded by the United States to put aside any plans for a coup ...<br><br>However, when Balaguer proved to be a major obstacle to beginning the process of democratization and indicated that he did not regard his regime as temporary, the United States added its own special pressure to that of Balaguer's domestic opposition to force him to resign after only two months in office. Washington then turned around and issued another stern warning to General Rodriguez, threatened Dominican leaders with a large loss of aid if they supported a coup, and mounted another naval show-of- force to help other military officers block the general's attempt to seize power. (...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Blum/DominicanRepublic_KH.html">www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Blum/DominicanRepublic_KH.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Rafael_Trujillo">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Rafael_Trujillo</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1960-1963 Ecuador

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:32 pm

In September 1960, a new government headed by José María Velasco Ibarra came to power. Velasco had won a decisive electoral victory, running on a vaguely liberal, populist, something-for- everyone platform. He was no Fidel Castro, he was not even a socialist, but he earned the wrath of the US State Department and the CIA by his unyielding opposition to the two stated priorities of American policy in Ecuador: breaking relations with Cuba, and clamping down hard on activists of the Communist Party and those to their left.[1]<br><br>Over the next three years, in pursuit of those goals, the CIA left as little as possible to chance [1]. In November 1961 the CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man. [2]<br><br>Arosemana soon proved no more acceptable to the CIA than Velasco. All operations continued, particularly the campaign to break relations with Cuba, which Arosemana steadfastly refused to do. The deadlock was broken in March 1962 when a military garrison, led by Col. Aurelio Naranjo, gave Arosemana 72 hours to send the Cubans packing and fire the leftist Minister of Labor. (There is no need to point out here who Naranjo's financial benefactor was.) Arosemana complied with the ultimatum, booting out the Czech and Polish delegations as well at the behest of the new cabinet which had been forced upon him. [1]<br><br>In 11 July 1963 a CIA-backed military coup overthrows President Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections, and begins abusing human rights. [2]<br><br>Their first act was to outlaw communism; "communists" and other "extreme" leftists were rounded up and jailed, the arrests campaign being facilitated by data from the CIA's Subversive Control Watch List. [1]<br><br>And during these three years, what were the American people told about this witch's brew of covert actions carried out, supposedly, in their name? Very little, if anything, if the New York Times is any index. Not once during the entire period, up to and including the coup, was any indication given in any article or editorial on Ecuador that the CIA or any other arm of the US government had played any role whatever in any event which had occurred in that country. This is the way the writings read even if one looks back at them with the advantage of knowledge and hindsight and reads between the lines. [1]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources:</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://members.aol.com/bblum6/ecuador.htm">members.aol.com/bblum6/ecuador.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/CIAtimeline.html">www.huppi.com/kangaroo/CIAtimeline.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Ecuador">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Ecuador</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1961 Assassination of Patrice-Emery Lumumba (Congo/Zaire)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:34 pm

Patrice Emery Lumumba (July 2, 1925 - January, 1961) was an African nationalist leader and the first Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo when it declared its independence in June 1960. Forced out of office during a political crisis in September, he was assassinated in January 1961.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Zaire<br>from the book<br>The CIAs Greatest Hits<br>by Mark Zepezauer<br><br>When the Congo (as Zaire was then known) won its independence from Belgium in 1960, Patrice Lumumba became its first prime minister. He was a charismatic leader who enjoyed strong support in the parliament, but he was able to hold office for only two months.<br><br>A leftist, Lumumba attempted to steer a neutral course between the US and the USSR - no easy task. As Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana pointed out, it was perfectly all right for Britain and France to maintain diplomatic relations with the Soviets, but any African leader who dared to do this became an enemy of the US.<br><br>Such was the fate of Lumumba. Though the CIA "regularly bought and sold Congolese politicians," it feared that Lumumba's oratorical talents would make him a thorn in their side even if he were maneuvered out of power. So they decided it made more sense to kill him.<br><br>CIA Director Allen Dulles ordered Lumumba's assassination. (A 1975 Congressional inquiry decided that "a reasonable inference" could be drawn that this was done with Eisenhower's assent.) The agency dispatched a lethal virus to Africa, but before it could be used on Lumumba, he was deposed by Zaire's president (who had CIA backing) and fled for his life.<br><br>With the ClA's help, Lumumba was captured in December 1960 by the troops of General Joseph Mobutu, who'd assumed control of the government. Lumumba was held prisoner for over a month, interrogated, tortured, then finally shot in the head. His body was dissolved in hydrochloric acid.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Zaire_CIAHits.html">www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Zaire_CIAHits.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Please note that the assassination was carried out during the reign of John McCone, Allen Dulles successor.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Church Committee</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>A 1975 report of the Church Committee entitled "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders" provides a rare inside account of how such operations are planned and carried out--in this case, the CIA's attempt to assassinate Patrice Lumumba in the Congo in 1960. Lumumba, a popular politician considered pro-Soviet by U.S. policymakers, had briefly served as prime minister after the Congo gained its independence from Belgium in June of that year. According to the Senate report, "It is likely that President Eisenhower's ...strong... concern about Lumumba...was taken by [CIA director] Allen Dulles as authority to assassinate Lumumba." CIA officials ordered a staff scientist (codenamed "Joe") to prepare "toxic biological materials" that would "produce a disease...indigenous to that area [of Africa]" and to deliver the poison to the CIA station chief in Leopoldville, who was to assassinate Lumumba. But before the station chief could carry out his orders, Lumumba was captured by the forces of Joseph Mobutu, the U.S. supported nationalist leader who is still dictator of the country, and delivered to his archenemies in Katanga, where he was murdered. Following are excerpts from the cables, published by the committee, that were exchanged by CIA headquarters in Washington, D.C. and the officers in the Congo.<br><br>August 18, 1960. Station chief, Leopoldville, to CIA headquarters:<br><br>EMBASSY AND STATION BELIEVE CONGO EXPERIENCING CLASSIC COMMUNIST EFFORT TAKEOVER GOVERNMENT...DECISIVE PERIOD NOT FAR OFF. WHETHER OR NOT LUMUMBA ACTUALLY COMMIE OR JUST PLAYING COMMIE GAME TO ASSIST HIS SOLIDIFYING POWER, ANTI- WEST FORCES RAPIDLY INCREASING POWER CONGO AND THERE MAY BE LITTLE TIME LEFT IN WHICH TO TAKE ACTION TO AVOID ANOTHER CUBA.<br><br>August 26. Headquarters to Leopoldville:<br><br>This excerpt appeared in Harper's Magazine in October 1984.<br><br>IN HIGH QUARTERS HERE IT IS THE CLEAR-CUT CONCLUSION THAT IF [LUMUMBA]CONTINUES TO HOLD HIGH OFFICE, THE INEVITABLE RESULT WILL...AT WORST.. PAVE THE WAY TO COMMUNIST TAKEOVER...WITH DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES..FOR THE INTERESTS OF THE FREE WORLD GENERALLY. CONSEQUENTLY WE CONCLUDE THAT HIS REMOVAL MUST BE AN URGENT AND PRIME OBJECTIVE...OF OUR COVERT ACTION...TO THE EXTENT THAT THE AMBASSADOR MAY DESIRE TO BE CONSULTED, YOU SHOULD SEEK HIS CONCURRENCE. IF IN ANY PARTICULAR CASE, HE DOES NOT WISH TO BE CONSULTED YOU CAN ACT ON YOUR AUTHORITY...<br><br>(...)<br><br>January 17. Mobutu and his ally Joseph Kasavubu send Lumumba to his enemies in Katanga province, the forces of local leader Moise Tshombe. Two days later, the CIA base chief in Elizabethville cables headquarters:<br><br>THANKS FOR PATRICE. IF WE HAD KNOWN HE WAS COMING WE WOULD HAVE BAKED A SNAKE.<br><br>A U.N. inquiry later concluded Lumumba was killed by his enemies on or shortly after his arrival in Katanga. The Church Committee investigation found that "the toxic substances were never used. But there is, however, no suggestion of a connection between the assassination plot and the events which actually led to Lumumba's death".<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://pw1.netcom.com/~ncoic/cia_info.htm">pw1.netcom.com/~ncoic/cia_info.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Church Committee Report Page 51:<br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://xs35.xs.to/pics/05265/lumumba_page51.jpg"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://xs35.xs.to/pics/05265/lumumba_page52.jpg"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/html/ChurchIR_0014a.htm">history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/html/ChurchIR_0014a.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Patrice-Emery_Lumumba">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Patrice-Emery_Lumumba</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1960-1963 Ecuador

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:36 pm

In September 1960, a new government headed by José María Velasco Ibarra came to power. Velasco had won a decisive electoral victory, running on a vaguely liberal, populist, something-for- everyone platform. He was no Fidel Castro, he was not even a socialist, but he earned the wrath of the US State Department and the CIA by his unyielding opposition to the two stated priorities of American policy in Ecuador: breaking relations with Cuba, and clamping down hard on activists of the Communist Party and those to their left.[1]<br><br>Over the next three years, in pursuit of those goals, the CIA left as little as possible to chance [1]. In November 1961 the CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man. [2]<br><br>Arosemana soon proved no more acceptable to the CIA than Velasco. All operations continued, particularly the campaign to break relations with Cuba, which Arosemana steadfastly refused to do. The deadlock was broken in March 1962 when a military garrison, led by Col. Aurelio Naranjo, gave Arosemana 72 hours to send the Cubans packing and fire the leftist Minister of Labor. (There is no need to point out here who Naranjo's financial benefactor was.) Arosemana complied with the ultimatum, booting out the Czech and Polish delegations as well at the behest of the new cabinet which had been forced upon him. [1]<br><br>In 11 July 1963 a CIA-backed military coup overthrows President Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections, and begins abusing human rights. [2]<br><br>Their first act was to outlaw communism; "communists" and other "extreme" leftists were rounded up and jailed, the arrests campaign being facilitated by data from the CIA's Subversive Control Watch List. [1]<br><br>And during these three years, what were the American people told about this witch's brew of covert actions carried out, supposedly, in their name? Very little, if anything, if the New York Times is any index. Not once during the entire period, up to and including the coup, was any indication given in any article or editorial on Ecuador that the CIA or any other arm of the US government had played any role whatever in any event which had occurred in that country. This is the way the writings read even if one looks back at them with the advantage of knowledge and hindsight and reads between the lines. [1]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources:</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://members.aol.com/bblum6/ecuador.htm">members.aol.com/bblum6/ecuador.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/CIAtimeline.html">www.huppi.com/kangaroo/CIAtimeline.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Ecuador">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Ecuador</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1964 Brazil

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:37 pm

Joao Goulart who was accused of being a communist tried to mobilize the working class and even the peasantry against the middle classes. A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the democratically elected government of Joao Goulart. João Goulart of Brazil proposed agrarian reform and nationalization of oil. [1]<br><br>Between 1964–1985 Brazil is ruled by a succession of generals appointed by the military. The junta will become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo Branco creates Latin America’s first death squads, or bands of secret police who hunt down "communists" for torture, interrogation and murder. Often these "communists" are no more than Branco’s political opponents. Later it is revealed that the CIA trains the death squads. [2]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.zompist.com/latam.html">www.zompist.com/latam.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/CIAtimeline.html">www.huppi.com/kangaroo/CIAtimeline.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Brazil">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Brazil</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1966 Ramparts Affair

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:44 pm

In June, 1965, Desmond FitzGerald was appointed as head of the Directorate for Plans. He now took charge of Mockingbird. At the end of 1966 FitzGerald discovered that Ramparts, a left-wing publication, had discovered that the CIA had been secretly funding the National Student Association. (1) FitzGerald ordered Edgar Applewhite to organize a campaign against the magazine. Applewhite later told Evan Thomas for his book, The Very Best Men: "I had all sorts of dirty tricks to hurt their circulation and financing. The people running Ramparts were vulnerable to blackmail. We had awful things in mind, some of which we carried off." (2)<br><br>This dirty tricks campaign failed to stop Ramparts publishing this story in March, 1967. The article, written by Sol Stern, was entitled NSA and the CIA. As well as reporting CIA funding of the National Student Association it exposed the whole system of anti-Communist front organizations in Europe, Asia, and South America. It named Cord Meyer as a key figure in this campaign. This included the funding of the literary journal Encounter. (3)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKmockingbird.htm">www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKmockingbird.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) Cord Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (1980) pages 86-89<br>(2) Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (1995) page 330<br>(3) Thomas Braden, interview included in the Granada Television program, World in Action: The Rise and Fall of the CIA (June, 1975)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Mockingbird">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Mockingbird</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>The National Student Association</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>The National Student Association was formed in 1947 in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. There was some question initially over whether the National Student Association (NSA) would associate with the International Union of Students (IUS). Ultimately, with the Cold War starting, the NSA decided it did not want to associate with the communists in the IUS and in 1950 it formed the International Student Conference (ISC) in Stockholm, Sweden with students from 18 other national student groups. As time went on, the ISC became more and more rigidly anti-communist, with the NSA being the primary force pushing this position within it.<br><br>While the NSA was somewhat liberal pertaining to domestic policy, such as with the civil rights movement, it was rabidly anti-communist in terms of foreign policy, especially within the ISC. Unknown to most was that the NSA was being secretly funded by and to a large degree controlled by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), particularly in terms of its foreign relations and its leadership. The CIA was using liberal foundations as a conduit for money to the NSA. Only a handful of NSA leaders knew of this relationship - the CIA codeword for NSA leaders who knew of the relationship was "witty". People had to sign a national security oath before being told of the relationship. If they informed people of the relationship subsequently, they could face steep legal penalties. The carrot to this stick was that "witty" students got draft deferments due to their CIA work. The NSA-CIA relationship was revealed in Ramparts magazine in 1967. The revelations caused a shake-up in the NSA.<br><br>In 1971 the National Student Lobby broke off from the NSA. In August of 1978, the National Student Lobby merged with the National Student Association to form the United States Student Association.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/National_Student_Association">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/National_Student_Association</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Congress for Cultural Freedom</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>In 1967, Ramparts magazine and the Saturday Evening Post reported on the CIA's funding of a number of anti-communist cultural organizations aimed at winning the support of Soviet-sympathizing liberals worldwide. These reports were lent credence by a statement made by a former CIA covert operations director admitting to CIA financing and operation of the CCF.<br><br>In July, 2004, the Australian political party Citizen's Electoral Council (CEC), a member of the Lyndon LaRouche movement, released a pamphlet called Children of Satan III—The Sexual Congress For Cultural Fascism, claiming that the CCF was a CIA cultural warfare unit sponsoring hideous modernist and postmodernist "art" in an effort to undermine the population's ability to think, and claimed Jackson Pollock was a supporter of the CCF, to that end.<br><br>Theories about the Australian arm of the IACF have abounded since 1975, when then Australian Governor-General John Kerr, an IACF member, dismissed the government of then Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, a move that some at the time interpreted as coup d'etat engineered from the United States.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_for_Cultural_Freedom">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_for_Cultural_Freedom</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>How Dulles Ran the CCF</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>The Congress for Cultural Freedom Making the Postwar World Safe for Fascist Kulturkampf<br>The CCF as a cold war assault on classical culture<br>-- by Steven Meyer & Jeffrey Steinberg, 2004-06-25 source: Executive Intelligence Review<br><br>(...)<br><br>How Dulles Ran the CCF<br><br>CCF was run through Frank Wisner's Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), which gave<br>CCF the codename QKOPERA. Reporting to Wisner was the CIA's Lawrence de Neufville, who worked at the Agency's French Labor desk. Michael Josselson of the CIA worked in CCF's Paris headquarters. James Burnham, the former Trotskyite, was hired as a consultant to OPC and was the primary liaison between the CIA and the intellectual community.<br><br>The bag man and paymaster for the operation was Irving Brown, who also ran CIA covert programs through European trade-union covers. Recently discovered archival material from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics indicates that Brown was under investigation in the mid-1960s for trafficking in drugs, or money-laundering from drug- trafficking (which provided funds for covert operations). U.S. documents linked him to notorious French crime bosses and Italian mafia figures.<br><br>The Fairfield Foundation and several other foundations were created by the CIA as fronts to pass funds. Once programs were established, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations took over major aspects of the funding, with the help of other leading U.S. family foundations. Former German High Commissioner McCloy had personally written to mid- 1960s Ford Foundation president McGeorge Bundy, to secure funding for the Congress at the moment that the CIA was exposing its former ties to CCF via the Tom Braden Saturday Evening Post story.<br><br>Victor Marchetti, the former top CIA officer who wrote the first major expose of the Agency's covert operations, the 1974 [book] The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, explained that the Agency had gone overboard in their use of front foundations:<br><br>"The CIA's culture-loving, optimistic, freewheeling operators, however, made serious tactical errors in funding these 'private' institutions. Over the years, the Agency became involved with so many groups that direct supervision and accounting were not always possible. Moreover, the Agency violated a fundamental rule of intelligence in not carefully separating the operations of each organization from all the others. Thus, when the first disclosures of CIA involvement were published early in 1967, enterprising journalists found that the financing arrangements and the conduit foundations were so intertwined and over-used that still other groups which had been receiving CIA funds could be tracked down."<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=Kulturkampf#Dulles">www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=Kulturkampf#Dulles</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Congress_for_Cultural_Freedom">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Congress_for_Cultural_Freedom</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1967 Operation PHEONIX (Vietnam)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:47 pm

The Phoenix Program, known as Ke Hoach Phung Hoang (a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) in Vietnamese, was a covert intelligence operation undertaken by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in close collaboration with South Vietnamese intelligence during the Vietnam War.<br><br>The program was designed to establish a death squad to neutralize the noncombatant infrastructure of Viet Cong cadres. The Phoenix Program was headed by Theodore Shackley who became Chief of Station in Vietnam in 1968.<br><br>The Phung Hoang operations were officially established by Presidential decree on July 1, 1968, although the program existed unofficially prior to that date. While the Phoenix operations were originated by the CIA, they were eventually turned over to the U.S. Army and Republic of Vietnam military. President Thieu would later declassify the program, and announce its existence publicly on October 1, 1969. The program was eventually considered by both U.S. and Vietnamese officials to have been a failure.<br><br>"I never knew in the course of all those operations any detainee to live through his interrogation. They all died. There was never any reasonable establishment of the fact that any one of those individuals was, in fact, cooperating with the VietCong, but they all died and the majority were either tortured to death or things like thrown out of helicopters." ... "It [Phoenix] became a sterile depersonalized murder program... Equal to Nazi] atrocities, the horrors of "Phoenix" must be studied to be believed."<br>- Former "Phoenix" officer Bart Osborne, testifying before Congress in 1971<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Measures of success and failure</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>The Phoenix program was dangerous, for it was being used against political opponents of the regime, whether they were Viet Cong or not. By throwing people in prison who were often only low-level operatives — sometimes people forced to cooperate with the VCI when they lived in Viet Cong territory — the government was alienating a large slice of the population.<br><br>The Phoenix Program was an assassination campaign and has received much criticism as an example of human rights atrocities committed by the CIA and the organizations it supports. Indeed, faulty intelligence often led to the murder of innocent civilians, in contravention to the Geneva Conventions. American statistics showed 19,534 members of the Viet Cong “neutralized” during 1969 — 6,187 killed, 8,515 captured, and 4,832 defected to the South Vietnamese side. The real figures are much higher<br><br>Contains information from: <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_Program">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_Program</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Declassified information</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Created by the CIA in Saigon in 1967, Phoenix was a program aimed at "neutralizing"— through assassination, kidnapping, and systematic torture—the civilian infrastructure that supported the Viet Cong insurgency in South Vietnam. It was a terrifying "final solution" that violated the Geneva Conventions and traditional American ideas of human morality. (For a full introduction to Phoenix, see link below.)<br><br>While researching the Phoenix Program for my book on the subject, I conducted over a hundred interviews and collected boxes full of documents from individuals, as well as from the State Department and Department of Defense. The most important documents provided by any one individual came from retired CIA officer Nelson Brickham, the man most responsibile for the creation of the Phoenix Program.<br><br>Luckily for history, Brickham kept copies of the documents he wrote while with the CIA; otherwise, there would be no documentary evidence of how Phoenix was actually created. During the evacuation of Saigon in April 1975, the CIA destroyed most of the documents it had about its assassination program, and none of what it kept at Langley headquarters can be obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests. This is no accident, for Phoenix is the model for the equally terrifying US homeland security aparatus.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thememoryhole.org/phoenix/">www.thememoryhole.org/phoenix/</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Phoenix_operation">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Phoenix_operation</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1968 Operation CHAOS

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:49 pm

CIA & Freedom of Information Act<br>Secrets<br>The CIA's War at Home<br>by Angus Mackenzie<br><br>Thomas H. Karamessines started an operation to handle the anti-war press. The new campaign was evidently sprung on August 4, 1967, when a "telegram [went out] to a great many field stations talking about high level interest in this activity," according to Richard Ober, in testimony before the Rockefeller Commission years later. The new operation, called Special Operations Group (SOG), was to be part of counterintelligence, and as such in the domain of the counterintelligence chief, James Jesus Angleton, then working under Karamessines. When Angleton learned of the new group, he was also given the names of two candidates to head it. He chose Ober.<br><br>On or about August 1, Angleton called a small meeting to announce Ober's new title and responsibilities. Ober's job was to coordinate SOG and expand his Ramparts investigation to encompass the entire anti-war underground press, numbering some 500 newspapers. He was to use the same plausible denial-"foreign funding"-that was used to justify the Ramparts operation. The special operation was later designated MHCHAOS: "MH" for the worldwide area of operations, "CHAOS" for, well, chaos. The Ramparts Task Force had been "high priority." MHCHAOS was above that: "operational priority in the field is in the highest category, ranking with Soviet and Chinese" operations. In twenty years, from 1947 to 1967, the CIA had moved from forswearing internal security functions to assigning domestic political espionage the highest level of priority.<br><br>The CIA was not alone in its mission. Ober coordinated efforts with agents of the army, the local police, and the FBI. At the U.S. Army Intelligence Command, Ralph Stein was assigned to a similar underground newspaper desk. Stein soon figured out that antiwar publications were being financed by change collected on the street, not by the KGB or the Chinese secret service. When Stein was called from his office to brief Ober's team at CIA headquarters, he was shocked to find that the CIA officers had knowledge about the lives of underground editors so intimate that it could only have come from infiltrators. Concerned that Ober's task force was operating in violation of the 1947 National Security Act, Stein returned to his office and registered an official objection with his commanders. The next thing he knew, he had been relieved of his liaison duties with the CIA.<br><br>In some respects Ober was a fugitive within his own agency, but the very illegality of MHCHAOS gave him power. Because he had been ordered to carry out an illegal mission, he had certain leverage over his bosses, as long as he kept his operation secret. Indeed, he had leverage over not only Karamessines but also CIA Director Helms, as well as anyone at the White House and the National Security Council who received his domestic intelligence reports. In time these would include Henry Kissinger and Nixon's counsel, John Dean. Ober was a man walking on the edge of a razor. As long as everything remained secret, he was not only safe but powerful: he had the ear of presidents.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA/FOIA_SecretsCIA.html">www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA/FOIA_SecretsCIA.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>CIA Censors Book</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Angus Mackenzie, CIA Censors Books (1997)<br><br>In March 1972, a typescript of an article and a related book proposal were purloined by a CIA agent from a New York publisher and forwarded to Langley. For Richard Ober, the manuscript was right out of a bad dream. A former senior CIA official, Victor Marchetti, was planning to write a book exposing CIA deceptions. Marchetti had been the executive assistant to the deputy director of Central Intelligence and had attended regular planning and intelligence meetings attended by Richard Helms. He had also been a courier for the Agency group that approves covert operations. The most carefully guarded CIA information was called Sensitive Compartmented Information, or SCI, and was distributed to officials strictly on a need-to-know basis. But his position had allowed Marchetti an overview of the Agency purposely denied to most CIA officers.<br><br>Over time, Marchetti had become troubled by the Agency's role in the overthrow of democracies on behalf of dictators and by CIA manipulation of other nations' internal policies. He saw evidence of corruption in overseas operations. Marchetti's intellectual honesty was also offended by intrigue inside CIA headquarters that disrupted the accuracy of intelligence estimates. Furthermore, the Vietnam War had disillusioned Marchetti, whose sons would soon reach draft age. And when Eagle Scouts from a troop he served as scoutmaster began dodging the draft, Marchetti began to feel his CIA job was isolating him.<br><br>Upon quitting the Agency at age thirty-nine, after a highly successful fourteen-year career, Marchetti wrote a novel called The Rope Dancer. Prior to its publication by Grosset and Dunlap in 1971, a CIA officer read a version of the manuscript at Marchetti's home, in keeping with the rules set out in the CIA secrecy contract Marchetti had signed. The CIA officer found no security breaches, and publication went forward.<br><br>What troubled Ober and Ober's immediate supervisor, Thomas Karamessines, was one particular line in the novel. Marchetti's central character is speaking with jaundiced anger about the fictional CIA: "Somebody should publicize the Agency's mistakes." Suppose Marchetti got it in his head to write about MHCHAOS? Concerned, Helms himself ordered Marchetti placed under surveillance beginning on March 23, I972.<br><br>Within days, an article written by Marchetti appeared in the April 3 Nation under the headline "CIA: The President's Loyal Tool." Marchetti wrote that the CIA was using the news media to create myths about the Agency and was fooling such influential publications as the New York Times and Newsweek. Additionally, he claimed, the CIA had continued to control youth, labor, and cultural organizations in the United States, notwithstanding the scandals triggered by the report in Ramparts. Marchetti also castigated Helms for spending too little time engaged with the intricacies of intelligence analysis, satirically calling him a "master spy" who conducted his most important weekly meetings in less than twenty minutes. Marchetti concluded: "Secrecy, like power, tends to corrupt, and it will not be easy to persuade those who rule in the United States to change their ways."<br><br>(...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKober.htm">www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKober.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Declassified</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Rockefeller Commission Report page 130<br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://img115.imageshack.us/img115/6792/chaos19lb.gif"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://img115.imageshack.us/img115/2407/rockefeller0072b2oo.gif"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://history-matters.com/archive/church/rockcomm/html/Rockefeller_0072b.htm">history-matters.com/archive/church/rockcomm/html/Rockefeller_0072b.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_CHAOS">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_CHAOS</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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1968 Che Guevara

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 5:50 pm

The Death of Che Guevara: Declassified<br>by Peter Kornbluh<br><br>On October 9th, 1967, Ernesto "Che" Guevara was put to death by Bolivian soldiers, trained, equipped and guided by U.S. Green Beret and CIA operatives. His execution remains a historic and controversial event; and thirty years later, the circumstances of his guerrilla foray into Bolivia, his capture, killing, and burial are still the subject of intense public interest and discussion around the world.<br><br>Document Summary:<br><br>CIA, The Fall of Che Guevara and the Changing Face of the Cuban Revolution, October 18, 1965<br>U.S. Army, Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Activation, Organization and Training of the 2d Battalion - Bolivian Army, April 28, 1967<br>White House Memorandum, May 11, 1967 to President Lyndon Johnson from Walt Rostow<br>CIA, Intelligence Information Cable, October 17, 1967<br>White House Memorandum, October 9, 1967<br>White House Memorandum, October 10, 1967<br>White House Memorandum, October 11, 1967<br>White House Memorandum, October 13, 1967<br>CIA Debriefing of Felix Rodriguez, June 3, 1975<br>State Department Cable, Official Confirmation of Death of Che Guevara, October 18, 1967<br>Southern Command, Activities of the 2nd Ranger Battalion and Death of Che Guevara<br>Department of State, Guevara's Death--The Meaning for Latin America, October 12, 1967<br>CIA, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Fidel Castro Delivers Eulogy on Che Guevara, October 19, 1967<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB5/index.html">www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB5/index.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
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