A Timeline of CIA Atrocities

Moderators: DrVolin, 82_28, Elvis, Jeff

Operation Northwoods

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:36 pm

Operation Northwoods is declassified operation to justify the invasion of Cuba. As a method of justification it discusses the use of staging terror like hijacking airplanes and then blaming Cuba for the terrorist attacks. Because of the similarities between Operation Northwoods and the 9/11 attacks, it is often referred to by MIHOP supporters.<br><br>Allen Dulles, the directory of the CIA was fired by John F. Kennedy in 1961 over Operation Northwoods and Operation Zapata. In 1963 he was one of the 7 investigators into John F. Kennedy's assassination.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Possible targets</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Hijack planes<br>Fake a Cuban airforce attack on a civilian jetliner<br>Shoot people in sniper attacks<br>Blow up a ship<br>Blow up John Glenn's space capsule<br>Attack military bases<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Civilian Jetliner attack</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Among the most elaborate schemes was to "create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner en route from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, Panama or Venezuela. The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to cross Cuba. The passengers could be a group of college students off on a holiday or any grouping of persons with a common interest to support chartering a non-scheduled flight."<br><br>Lemnitzer and the Joint Chiefs worked out a complex deception:<br><br>An aircraft at Elgin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At a designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would be loaded with the selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone [a remotely controlled unmanned aircraft]. Take off times of the drone aircraft and the actual aircraft will be scheduled to allow a rendezvous south of Florida.<br><br>From the rendezvous point the passenger-carrying aircraft will descend to minimum altitude and go directly into an auxiliary field at Elgin AFB where arrangements will have been made to evacuate the passengers and return the aircraft to its original status. The drone aircraft meanwhile will continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will be transmitting on the international distress frequency a "May Day" message stating he is under attack by Cuban MiG aircraft. The transmission will be interrupted by destruction of the aircraft, which will be triggered by radio signal. This will allow ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization] radio stations in the Western Hemisphere to tell the U.S. what has happened to the aircraft instead of the U.S. trying to "sell" the incident.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.internetpirate.com/northwoods.htm">www.internetpirate.com/northwoods.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>John Edgar Hoover letter</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Our Miami, Florida, Office on November 23, 1963, advised that the office of coordinator of Cuban Affairs in Miami advised that the Department of State feels some misguided anti-Castro group might capitalize on the present situation and undertake an unauthorized raid against Cuba, believing that the assassination of President John F. Kennedy might herald a change in U.S. policy, which is not true. ...<br><br>The substance of the investigation was orally furnished by George Bush of the Central Intelligence Agency and captain William Edwards of the Defense Intelligence Agency on November 23, 1963, by Mr. W.T. Forsyth of this Bureau<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.internetpirate.com/bush.htm">www.internetpirate.com/bush.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE IMAGE START--><img src="http://www.internetpirate.com/fbi150.gif"/><!--EZCODE IMAGE END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Northwoods">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Northwoods</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

Operation ZR/RIFLE

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:38 pm

In November 1961 William Harvey was ordered to activate an assassination plot against Fidel Castro. This became part of what became known as the ZR/RIFLE project. Harvey decided to transfer David Sanchez Morales from Mexico City to the JM WAVE station. Johnny Roselli was also recruited into the project.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>History</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Roselli persuaded Santos Trafficante, the senior Mafia figure in Cuba, to join the conspiracy. Meyer Lansky also became involved in this plot and was reportedly offering a million-dollar reward for the Cuban leader's murder. Richard Cain, a specialist in electronics and wire taps, was also recruited by Roselli. Cain took part in a failed attempt in March 1961 to poison Castro.<br><br>On 12th March, 1961, William Harvey arranged for CIA operative, Jim O'Connell, to meet Sam Giancana, Santo Trafficante, Johnny Roselli and Robert Maheu at the Fontainebleau Hotel. During the meeting O'Connell gave poison pills and $10,000 to Rosselli to be used against Fidel Castro. As Richard D. Mahoney points out in his book: Sons and Brothers: "Late one evening, probably March 13, Rosselli passed the poison pills and the money to a small, reddish-haired Afro-Cuban by the name of Rafael "Macho" Gener in the Boom Boom Room, a location Giancana thought "stupid." Rosselli's purpose, however, was not just to assassinate Castro but to set up the Mafia's partner in crime, the United States government. Accordingly, he was laying a long, bright trail of evidence that unmistakably implicated the CIA in the Castro plot. This evidence, whose purpose was blackmail, would prove critical in the CIA's cover-up of the Kennedy assassination."<br><br>During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Robert Kennedy instructed CIA director John McCone, to halt all covert operations aimed at Cuba. A few days later he discovered that William Harvey had ignored this order and had dispatched three commando teams into Cuba to prepare for what he believed would be an inevitable invasion. Kennedy was furious and as soon as the Cuban Missile Crisis was over, Harvey was removed as commander of ZR/RIFLE. On 30th October, 1962, RFK terminated "all sabotage operations" against Cuba. As a result of President Kennedy's promise to Nikita Khrushchev that he would not invade Cuba, Operation Mongoose was disbanded.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKzrrifle.htm">www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKzrrifle.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Soon after Kennedy gained power he was informed of the CIA operation to assassinate Castro. Kennedy agreed with the policy but was opposed to the CIA working with the Mafia. He was rightly worried about the prospect of being blackmailed in the future. He was also opposed to the FBI agreement not to prosecute the Mafia bosses involved in this project. Johnny Roselli the Mafia link man was now excluded from the project. William Harvey, the agent in charge of ZR/RIFLE, was transferred to run the CIA station in Italy. ZR/RIFLE was closed down and replaced with Operation Freedom and placed under the control of his brother, Robert Kennedy. However, we now know from recently released FBI documents, that Harvey and Roselli, continued to meet in secret.<br><br>- Dorothy Kilgallen, New York Journal American (15th July, 1959)<br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/lofiversion/index.php/t824.html">educationforum.ipbhost.com/lofiversion/index.php/t824.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Three phases</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Subject: Three Phases of Assassination<br>by Debra Conway<br><br>(...)<br>Phase One: Aug. 1960 until Nov 15 '61, Mafia members, John Rosselli, Sam Giancana, and Santos Trafficante, (AKA Santo Trafficante) under James O'Connell. These activities were exposed when Giancana's 1960 wiretap of a Las Vegas hotel room was investigated by the FBI in 1961 and revealed in part to Robert Kennedy on May 22, 1961.<br><br>Phase Two: Late 1961 or Early 1962. Operation MONGOOSE under William Harvey begins. Harvey continues to work with Rosselli, while bringing in QJ/WIN with ZR/RIFLE on a separate course.<br><br>Phase Three: Dec 1963, ZR/RIFLE is still in effect, continued contact with Rosselli under William Harvey; AM/LASH under Desmond FitzGerald, and also RFK's activities with the exiles.<br><br>Note on Phase Three -- I believe the conspirators used using the Castro plots for "window dressing" for the true plot to assassinate President Kennedy and may not have been true attempts to kill [[Fidel Castro|Castro at all, but a way to implicate others (false sponsors). (...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.jfklancer.com/cuba/castroplots.html">www.jfklancer.com/cuba/castroplots.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Church Committee Report</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Public Domain: Senate Commission Report<br><br>Church Committee Interim Report page 181-182 (OCR-scan. May contain spelling and reading errors)<br><br>C. INSTITUTIONALIZING ASSASSINATION : THE “EXECUTIVE ACTION” CAPABILITY<br><br>In addition to investigating actual assassination plots, the Committee has examined a project known as Executive Action which included, as one element, the development of a general, standby assassination capability. As with the plots, this examination focused on two broad questions: What happened? What was the extent and nature of authorization for the project ?<br><br>1. INTRODUCTION<br>Sometime in early 1961, Bissell instructed Harvey, who was then Chief of a CIA Foreign Intelligence staff, to establish an “executive action capability,” which would include research into a capability to assassinate foreign leaders. (Bissell, 6/9/75, .51; Harvey, 6/25/ 75, pp. 36-37) At some point in early 1961 Bissell discussed the Executive's Action capability with Bundy. The timing of that conversation and whether “the White House” urged that a capability be created were matters on which the evidence varied widely, as is discussed in section (2) below. Bissell, Harvey and Helms all agreed that the “generalized” capability was never used. (Bissell 6/‘9/75: p. 87; Harvey 6/25/75; p. 45; Helms 6/13/75, p. 52)<br><br>“Executive Action” was a CIA euphemism, defined as a project for research into developing means for overthrowing foreign political leaders, including a “capability to perform assassinations.” (Harvey, 6/25/75, p. 34) Bissell indicated that Executive Action covered a “wide spectrum of actions” to “eliminate the effectiveness” of foreign leaders, with assassination as the “most extreme” action in the spectrum. (Bissell., 7/22/ 75, p. 32) The Inspector General’s Report described executive action as a “general standby capability” to carry out assassination when required. (I.G. Report, p. 37) The project was given the code name ZR/RIFLE by the CIA.<br><br>A single agent (“asset”) was given the cryptonym QJ/WIN, and placed under Harvey’s supervision for the ZR/RIFLE project. He was never used in connection with any actual assassination efforts. Helms described QJ/WIN’s “capability”:<br><br>If you needed somebody to carry out murder. I guess you had a man who might be prepared to carry it out. (Helms, 6/13/75, p. 50)<br><br>Harvey used QJ/WIN, to spot “individuals with criminal and underworld connections in Europe for possible multi-purpose use.” (Harvey, 6/25/75, p. 50) For example, QJ/WIN reported that a potential asset in the Middle East was “the leader of a gambling syndicate” with “an available pool of assassins.” (CIA file, ZR/RIFLE/Personality Sketches) However, Harvey testified that:<br><br>During the entire existence of the entire ZR/RIFLE project no agent was recruited for the purpose of assassination, and no even tentative targeting or target list was ever drawn. (Harvey, 6/25/75, p. 45)<br><br>In general, project ZR/RIFLE involved assessing the problems and requirements of assassination and developing a stand-by assassination capability ; more specifically, it involved “spotting” potential avents and “researching” assassination techniques that might be used. (Bissell, 7/17/75, p. 11 and S/9/75, p. 73 ; Harvey, 6/25/75, pp. 37-A, 45) Bissell characterized ZR/RIFLE as “internal and purely preparatory.” (Bissell, 7/22/75, p. 32) The 1967 Inspector General’s Report found “no indication in the file that, the Executive Action capability of ZR/RIFLE-QJ/WIN was ever used,” but said that “after Harvey took over the Castro operation, he ran it as one aspect of ZR/RIFLE.’’ (I.G. Report, pp. 4041)<br><br>http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/pdf/ChurchIR_3C_ExecAction.pdf<br><br><br>Page 188<br>(b) Bissell’s instruction to Harvey to take over responsibility for underworld contact: November 1961<br><br>Both Bissell and Harvey recall a meeting in November 1961, in which Harvey was instructed to take over the contact with John Rosselli as part of Project ZR/RIFLE. (Bissell, 6/11/75, pp. 19, 47; Harvey, 5/25/75, p. 86; and 6/11/75, p. 19) Harvey’s notes placed the meeting on November 15. 1961, (I.G. Report, p. 39) during the period in which Harvey was freed from his duties on another Agency staff and assumed direction of Task Force W which ran CIA activity against the Castro regime.<br><br>According to Bissell and Harvey, their November meeting involved only the planning and research of a capability rather than a targeted operation against Castro. (Bissell, 7/17/75, p. 13; Harvey, 7/11/75, p. 60) But Bissell acknowledged that the purpose of the Rosselli contact had been to assassinate Castro, and that “it is a fair inference that there would have been no reason to maintain it [the contact] unless there was some possibility of reactivating that operation.” (Bissell, 6/11/75, p. 19) Bissell stated that because the assassination plot against Castro involving the underworld figures<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/pdf/ChurchIR_3C_ExecAction.pdf">history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/pdf/ChurchIR_3C_ExecAction.pdf</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/ZR/RIFLE">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/ZR/RIFLE</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

Re: 1948 Operation Mockingbird

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:41 pm

In 1948 Frank Wisner was appointed director of the Office of Special Projects (OSP). Soon afterwards OSP was renamed the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). This became the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the Central Intelligence Agency. Wisner was told to create an organization that concentrated on "propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world." (1)<br><br>Later that year Wisner established Mockingbird, a program to influence the domestic and foreign media. Wisner recruited Philip Graham (Washington Post) to run the project within the industry. According to Deborah Davis (Katharine the Great): "By the early 1950s, Wisner 'owned' respected members of the New York Times, Newsweek, CBS and other communications vehicles." (2)<br><br>In 1951 Allen W. Dulles persuaded Cord Meyer to join the CIA. However, there is evidence that he was recruited several years earlier and had been spying on the liberal organizations he had been a member of in the later 1940s. (3) According to Deborah Davis, Meyer became Mockingbird's "principal operative". (4)<br><br>One of the most important journalists under the control of Operation Mockingbird was Joseph Alsop, whose articles appeared in over 300 different newspapers. Other journalists willing to promote the views of the CIA included Stewart Alsop (New York Herald Tribune), Ben Bradlee (Newsweek), James Reston (New York Times), Charles Douglas Jackson (Time Magazine), Walter Pincus (Washington Post), William C. Baggs (Miami News), Herb Gold (Miami News) and Charles Bartlett (Chattanooga Times). (5) According to Nina Burleigh (A Very Private Woman) these journalists sometimes wrote articles that were commissioned by Frank Wisner. The CIA also provided them with classified information to help them with their work. (6)<br><br>After 1953 the network was overseen by Allen W. Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency. By this time Operation Mockingbird had a major influence over 25 newspapers and wire agencies. These organizations were run by people with well-known right-wing views such as William Paley (CBS), Henry Luce (Time Magazine and Life Magazine), Arthur Hays Sulzberger (New York Times), Alfred Friendly (managing editor of the Washington Post), Jerry O'Leary (Washington Star), Hal Hendrix (Miami News), Barry Bingham Sr., (Louisville Courier-Journal), James Copley (Copley News Services) and Joseph Harrison (Christian Science Monitor). (7)<br><br>The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was funded by siphoning of funds intended for the Marshall Plan. Some of this money was used to bribe journalists and publishers. Frank Wisner was constantly looked for ways to help convince the public of the dangers of communism. In 1954 Wisner arranged for the funding the Hollywood production of Animal Farm, the animated allegory based on the book written by George Orwell. (8)<br><br>According to Alex Constantine (Mockingbird: The Subversion Of The Free Press By The CIA), in the 1950s, "some 3,000 salaried and contract CIA employees were eventually engaged in propaganda efforts". Wisner was also able to restrict newspapers from reporting about certain events. For example, the CIA plots to overthrow the governments of Iran (See: Operation PBSUCCESS) and Guatemala (See: Operation Ajax). (9)<br><br>Thomas Braden, head of the of International Organizations Division (IOD), played an important role in Operation Mockingbird. Many years later he revealed his role in these events:<br><br>"If the director of CIA wanted to extend a present, say, to someone in Europe - a Labour leader - suppose he just thought, This man can use fifty thousand dollars, he's working well and doing a good job - he could hand it to him and never have to account to anybody... There was simply no limit to the money it could spend and no limit to the people it could hire and no limit to the activities it could decide were necessary to conduct the war - the secret war.... It was a multinational. Maybe it was one of the first. Journalists were a target, labor unions a particular target - that was one of the activities in which the communists spent the most money." (10)<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Part of the Directorate of Plans</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>In August, 1952, the Office of Policy Coordination and the Office of Special Operations (the espionage division) were merged to form the Directorate of Plans (DPP). Frank Wisner became head of this new organization and Richard Helms became his chief of operations. Mockingbird was now the responsibility of the DPP. (11)<br><br>J. Edgar Hoover became jealous of the CIA's growing power. He described the OPC as "Wisner's gang of weirdos" and began carrying out investigations into their past. It did not take him long to discover that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the 1930s. This information was passed to who started making attacks on members of the OPC. Hoover also gave McCarthy details of an affair that Frank Wisner had with Princess Caradja in Romania during the war. Hoover, claimed that Caradja was a Soviet agent. (12)<br><br>Joseph McCarthy also began accusing other senior members of the CIA as being security risks. McCarthy claimed that the CIA was a "sinkhole of communists" and claimed he intended to root out a hundred of them. One of his first targets was Cord Meyer, who was still working for Operation Mockingbird. In August, 1953, Richard Helms, Wisner's deputy at the OPC, told Meyer that Joseph McCarthy had accused him of being a communist. The Federal Bureau of Investigation added to the smear by announcing it was unwilling to give Meyer "security clearance". However, the FBI refused to explain what evidence they had against Meyer. Allen W. Dulles and both came to his defence and refused to permit a FBI interrogation of Meyer. (13)<br><br>Joseph McCarthy did not realise what he was taking on. Wisner unleashed Mockingbird on McCarthy. Drew Pearson, Joe Alsop, Jack Anderson, Walter Lippmann and Ed Murrow all went into attack mode and McCarthy was permanently damaged by the press coverage orchestrated by Wisner. (14)<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Guatemala</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Mockingbird was very active during the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala during Operation PBSUCCESS. People like Henry Luce were able to censor stories that appeared too sympathetic towards the plight of Arbenz. Allen W. Dulles was even able to keep left- wing journalists from travelling to Guatemala, including Sydney Gruson of the New York Times. (15)<br><br>In 1955 President Dwight Eisenhower established the 5412 Committee in order to keep a check on the CIA's covert activities. The committee (also called the Special Group) included the CIA director, the national security adviser, and the deputy secretaries at State and Defence and had the responsibility to decide whether covert actions were "proper" and in the national interest. It was also decided to include Richard B. Russell, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. However, as Allen W. Dulles was later to admit, because of "plausible deniability" planned covert actions were not referred to the 5412 Committee.<br><br>Dwight Eisenhower became concerned about CIA covert activities and in 1956 appointed David Bruce as a member of the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities (PBCFIA). Eisenhower asked Bruce to write a report on the CIA. It was presented to Eisenhower on 20th December, 1956. Bruce argued that the CIA's covert actions were "responsible in great measure for stirring up the turmoil and raising the doubts about us that exists in many countries in the world today." Bruce was also highly critical of Mockingbird. He argued: "what right have we to go barging around in other countries buying newspapers and handling money to opposition parties or supporting a candidate for this, that, or the other office." (16)<br><br>After Richard Bissell lost his post as Director of Plans in 1962, Tracy Barnes took over the running of Mockingbird. According to Evan Thomas (The Very Best Men) Barnes planted editorials about political candidates who were regarded as pro-CIA.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>First exposure</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>In 1964 Random House published Invisible Government by David Wise and Thomas Ross. The book exposed the role the CIA was playing in foreign policy. This included the CIA coups in Guatemala (Operation PBSUCCESS) and Iran (Operation Ajax) and the Bay of Pigs operation. It also revealed the CIA's attempts to overthrow President Sukarno in Indonesia and the covert operations taking place in Laos and Vietnam. The CIA considered buying up the entire printing of Invisible Government but this idea was rejected when Random House pointed out that if this happened they would have to print a second edition. (17)<br><br>John McCone, the new director of the CIA, also attempted to stop Edward Yates from making a documentary on the CIA for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). This attempt at censorship failed and NBC went ahead and broadcast this critical documentary.<br><br>In June, 1965, Desmond FitzGerald was appointed as head of the Directorate for Plans. He now took charge of Mockingbird. At the end of 1966 FitzGerald discovered that Ramparts, a left-wing publication, had discovered that the CIA had been secretly funding the National Student Association. )18) FitzGerald ordered Edgar Applewhite to organize a campaign against the magazine. Applewhite later told Evan Thomas for his book, The Very Best Men: "I had all sorts of dirty tricks to hurt their circulation and financing. The people running Ramparts were vulnerable to blackmail. We had awful things in mind, some of which we carried off." (19)<br><br>This dirty tricks campaign failed to stop Ramparts publishing this story in March, 1967. The article, written by Sol Stern, was entitled NSA and the CIA. As well as reporting CIA funding of the National Student Association it exposed the whole system of anti-Communist front organizations in Europe, Asia, and South America. It named Cord Meyer as a key figure in this campaign. This included the funding of the literary journal Encounter. (20)<br><br>In May 1967 Thomas Braden responded to this by publishing an article entitled, I'm Glad the CIA is Immoral, in the Saturday Evening Post, where he defended the activities of the International Organizations Division unit of the CIA. Braden also confessed that the activities of the CIA had to be kept secret from Congress. As he pointed out in the article: "In the early 1950s, when the cold war was really hot, the idea that Congress would have approved many of our projects was about as likely as the John Birch Society's approving Medicare." (21)<br><br>Meyer's role in Operation Mockingbird was further exposed in 1972 when he was accused of interfering with the publication of a book, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia by Alfred W. McCoy. The book was highly critical of the CIA's dealings with the drug traffic in Southeast Asia. The publisher, who leaked the story, had been a former colleague of Meyer's when he was a liberal activist after the war. (22)<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Church Committee Investigations</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Further details of Operation Mockingbird was revealed as a result of the Frank Church investigations (Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities) in 1975. According to the Congress report published in 1976:<br><br>"The CIA currently maintains a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence opinion through the use of covert propaganda. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets."<br><br>Church argued that the cost of misinforming the world cost American taxpayers an estimated $265 million a year. (23)<br><br>In February, 1976, George H. W. Bush, the recently appointed Director of the CIA announced a new policy: "Effective immediately, the CIA will not enter into any paid or contract relationship with any full-time or part-time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station." However, he added that the CIA would continue to "welcome" the voluntary, unpaid cooperation of journalists. (24)<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Carl Bernstein Article</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Carl Bernstein, who had worked with Bob Woodward in the investigation of Watergate, provided further information about Operation Mockingbird in an article in Rolling Stone in October, 1977. Bernstein claimed that over a 25 year period over 400 American journalists secretly carried out assignments for the CIA:<br><br>"Some of the journalists were Pulitzer Prize winners, distinguished reporters who considered themselves ambassadors-without-portfolio for their country. Most were less exalted: foreign correspondents who found that their association with the Agency helped their work; stringers and freelancers who were as interested it the derring-do of the spy business as in filing articles, and, the smallest category, full- time CIA employees masquerading as journalists abroad." (25)<br><br>It is almost certain that Bernstein had encountered Operation Mockingbird while working on his Watergate investigation. For example, Deborah Davis (Katharine the Great) has argued that Deep Throat was senior CIA official, Richard Ober, who was running Operation Chaos for Richard Nixon during this period. (26)<br><br>According to researchers such as Steve Kangas (27), Angus Mackenzie (28) and Alex Constantine (29), Operation Mockingbird was not closed down by the CIA in 1976. For example, in 1998 Kangas argued that CIA asset Richard Mellon Scaife ran "Forum World Features, a foreign news service used as a front to disseminate CIA propaganda around the world." (30)<br><br>On 8th February, 1999, Kangas was found dead in the bathroom of the Pittsburgh offices of Richard Mellon Scaife. He had been shot in the head. Officially he had committed suicide but some people believe he was murdered. In an article in Salon Magazine, (19th March, 1999) Andrew Leonard asked:<br><br>"Why did the police report say the gun wound was to the left of his head, while the autopsy reported a wound on the roof of his mouth? Why had the hard drive on his computer been erased shortly after his death? Why had Scaife assigned his No. 1 private detective, Rex Armistead, to look into Kangas' past?" (31)<br><br>Sources<br><br>David Wise and Thomas Ross, Invisible Government (1964) page 95<br>Deborah Davis, Katharine the Great (1979) pages 137-138<br>Cord Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (1980) pages 42-59<br>Deborah Davis, Katharine the Great (1979) page 226<br>Carl Bernstein, CIA and the Media, Rolling Stone Magazine (20th October, 1977)<br>Nina Burleigh, A Very Private Woman (1998) page 118<br>Carl Bernstein, CIA and the Media, Rolling Stone Magazine (20th October, 1977)<br>Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (1995) page 33<br>Alex Constantine, Mockingbird: The Subversion Of The Free Press By The CIA (2000)<br>Thomas Braden, interview included in the Granada Television program, World in Action: The Rise and Fall of the CIA (June, 1975)<br>John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (1986) pages 198-202<br>Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (1995) pages 98-106<br>Cord Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (1980) pages 60-84<br>Jack Anderson,Confessions of a Muckraker (1979) pages 208-236<br>Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (1995) pages 117<br>Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (1995) pages 148-150<br>David Wise and Thomas Ross, Invisible Government (1964)<br>Cord Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (1980) pages 86-89<br>Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (1995) page 330<br>Thomas Braden, interview included in the Granada Television program, World in Action: The Rise and Fall of the CIA (June, 1975)<br>Thomas Braden, Saturday Evening Post (20th May, 1967)<br>Nina Burleigh, A Very Private Woman (1998) page 105<br>Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Government Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities (April, 1976) pages 191-201<br>Mary Louise, Mockingbird: CIA Media Manipulation (2003)<br>Carl Bernstein, CIA and the Media, Rolling Stone Magazine (20th October, 1977)<br>Deborah Davis, Katharine the Great (1979) pages 266-268<br>See Steve Kangas's website: Liberalism Resurgent <!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href="http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/">www.huppi.com/kangaroo/</a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--> tenets.htm<br>Angus Mackenzie, Secrets: The CIA's War at Home (1998)<br>Alex Constantine, Virtual Government (1997)<br>Steve Kangas, The Origins of the Overclass (1998)<br>Andrew Leonard, Salon Magazine, (19th March, 1999)<br><br>Note: This (wiki) entry has been written by the same person who wrote the article on the Spartacus Education website (John Simkin). It is therefore not a violation of copyright.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Mockingbird">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Mockingbird</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

Operation Condor

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:42 pm

Operation Condor (Spanish:Operación Cóndor) was a campaign of assassination and intelligence-gathering, dubbed counter-terrorism, conducted jointly by the security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the mid-1970s.<br><br>The right-wing military governments of these countries, led by dictators such as Videla, Pinochet and Stroessner agreed to cooperate in sending teams into other countries, including France, Portugal and the United States to locate, observe and assassinate political opponents. They also exchanged torture techniques, like near drowning and playing the sound recordings of victims who were being tortured to their family. Many people disappeared and were killed without trial. Their targets were leftist guerrilla terrorists but many are thought to be political opponents, family and other innocent people.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Condor and the USA</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>It has been alleged that Operation Condor was given at least tacit approval by the United States, due to fear of violent Marxist revolution in the region. It appears that Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State in the Nixon administration, was closely involved diplomatically with the Southern Cone governments at the time and well-aware of the Condor plan.<br><br>CIA documents show that the CIA had close contact with members of the Chilean secret police, DINA, and its chief Manuel Contreras. Some have alleged that the CIA's one-time payment to Contreras is proof that the U.S. approved of Operation Condor and military repression within Chile. The CIA's official documents state that at one time, some members of the intelligence community recommended making Contreras into a paid contact because of his closeness to junta Chairman General Pinochet; the plan was rejected based on Contreras' poor human rights track record, but the single payment was made due to miscommunication.<br><br>Operation Condor involved using illegal covert means such as the assassination team coordinated between the Chilean DINA security service and Miami Cuban terrorists like Orlando Bosch, Guillermo Novo and Luis Posada Carriles.<br><br>The same team helped set up in 1975 the Committee on the Present Danger, in which Paul Wolfowitz was a leading figure.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Two Operation Condors</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>One Operation Condor was a drug eradication program in Peru in 1985. It involved the DEA, CIA, and the Guardia Civil. This one is not suspicious; in fact, it appears that it was the Colombians and Peruvians who dubbed it Operacion Condor<br><br>The other Operation Condor is more curious. It was a drug eradication program in Mexico that began in 1975 and continued until 1985. Mexico's DFS was completely corrupt, and its chief, Miguel Nazar Haro, was a crucial CIA asset. Mexico contracted with Evergreen International Aviation, which had CIA connections too numerous to count, to fly the planes for herbicidal spraying, and two CIA people put together the contract. The program was overseen by the narcotics office at the U.S. State Department, but it was such a boondoggle that Mexico refused to let the U.S. fly over the spray zones to verify eradication.<br><br>This is suspicious because the CIA was starting to disguise some of its counterinsurgency efforts with drug programs during the 1970s. In 1971, there was talk of secret BNDD assassinations authorized and budgeted from Nixon's White House (BNDD was the forerunner of DEA). A CIA legend, Lucien Conein, was helping E. Howard Hunt, another CIA legend, with White House dirty tricks in 1971. After Watergate, Conein was shunted off to the BNDD. He hired a number of former CIA officers and agents, and was widely reported to be organizing an assassination program. In 1974, Conein went shopping for assassination equipment with his old friend Mitchell Werbell III. Hunt recruited Cuban exiles in 1972 to "waste" Omar Torrijos in Panama, ostensibly because he protected heroin traffickers, but really because of his position on the Panama Canal.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.wealth4freedom.com/truth/condor.htm">www.wealth4freedom.com/truth/condor.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Was George W. Bush part of Operation Condor?</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>In 1971 Robert Gow who previously bought Zapata Oil from George H.W. Bush hired George W. Bush for Stratford to fly planes to Florida to investigate plant nurseries and fly to Guatemala.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Condor">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Condor</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1948 Operation Gladio

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:45 pm

Operation Gladio was a clandestine "stay-behind" operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter Communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. While Gladio is usually used to refer to only the Italian "stay-behind", the term has also been applied to all other "stay-behind" operations.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Gladio">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Gladio</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay-Behind Armies<br>Edited by Daniele Ganser and Christian Nuenlist<br>Chapter One: A terrorist attack in Italy - Synopsis<br><br>This chapter describes the discovery of the secret stay-behind army “Gladio” in Italy. The chapter takes the reader back to the Peteano terrorist attack of 31 May 1972. In that year an anonymous phone call after the attack suggested that the left-wing terrorist organization “Red Brigades” had carried out the atrocity, and for many years Italy believed that the crime had been carried out by the political left. Yet in 1984 Italian judge Felice Casson reopened the Peteano case after having discovered large- scale manipulations.<br><br>The chapter describes how Casson during his investigations discovered the Italian secret stay-behind army “Gladio” hidden within the military secret service and how it had linked up with right-wing terrorist Vincenzo Vinciguerra who confessed to having carried out the Peteano terrorist attack.<br><br>The chapter focuses on the agitated Italian public debate that followed when Vinciguerra exposed the so called “strategy of tension” through which members of the secret stay-behind armies and the military secret services had manipulated the public through terrorism. The secret armies supplied right wing terrorists with explosives to carry out terrorist attacks on the Italian population who were thereafter blamed on the communist party and the political left in general in order to discredit the political opponent.<br><br>"The terrorist line was followed by camouflaged people, people belonging to the security apparatus, or those linked to the state apparatus through rapport or collaboration”, Vincenzo Vinciguerra testified. Right-wing organisations across Western Europe “were being mobilised into the battle as part of an anti-communist strategy originating not with organisations deviant from the institutions of power, but from the state itself, and specifically from within the ambit of the state's relations within the Atlantic Alliance."<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.isn.ethz.ch/php/documents/collection_gladio/synopsis.htm">www.isn.ethz.ch/php/documents/collection_gladio/synopsis.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br>(C) Parallel History Project on NATO and the Warsaw Pact (PHP), www.isn.ethz.ch/php, by permission of the Center for Security Studies at ETH Zurich and the National Security Archive at the George Washington University on behalf of the PHP network<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Gladio and Freemasonry</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Operation Gladio<br><br>by David Guyatt<br><br>When on the morning of 17 June 1982, the body of Roberto Calvi was found hanging beneath London's Blackfriars bridge, it was to speed a process that prised open a series of events spanning four decades. The circumstances of Calvi's death led knowledgeable observers to darkly whisper of a Masonic ritual slaying. With his hands tied behind his back and a brick thrust into his coat pocket, Calvi had been strangled, apparently by the rope that had been noosed around his neck. Moreover, the location itself was believed to be symbolic. Blackfriars bridge sits astride the border that connects the Masonically named "Square Mile" of the City of London to the rest of the Capital city.<br><br>The initial inquest into his death returned a verdict of suicide. Appealing against what they believed to be prejudice on the part of the Coroner - and suspicious of the Masonic affiliations of the City police - Calvi's family called for a second, more thorough inquest, which belatedly returned an open verdict. Meanwhile, Banco Ambrosiano, Calvi's massive, privately-owned bank, collapsed on the news of his death, revealing a huge "black hole" in the balance sheet amounting to $1.3 billion. A large proportion of the missing money was later located in accounts owned by the Vatican bank. The connections that unfolded in the wake of the Calvi "affair" were to link Masons with Mafiosi, Monks with Murder and Spies with wanted Nazi war criminals.<br><br>World War Two had barely ground to a final halt when, in 1947, Allied strategists set about planning for World War Three. Even as British and US intelligence officials scoured Europe seeking to apprehend Nazi's wanted on war crimes charges, other more secretive US and British intelligence units were actively engaged in helping those same Nazi's to escape.<br><br>Europe's "Stay Behind" Units<br><br>The means of escape were the Vatican run "Ratlines." Operated with the knowledge and blessing of highly placed US and British government officials, the Ratlines guided 30,000 wanted Nazi's to sanctuary. Safe haven locations included the US, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the favourite bolt hole of them all: South America.<br><br>CONTINUED...<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.copi.com/articles/guyatt/gladio.html">www.copi.com/articles/guyatt/gladio.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>The CIAs Greatest Hits</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Operation Gladio<br>from the book<br>The CIAs Greatest Hits<br>by Mark Zepezauer<br><br>(...)<br><br>One of the first duties the NSC deemed necessary was the subversion of Italian democracy...in the name of democracy, of course. Italy seemed likely to elect a leftist government in the 1948 election. To make sure Italians voted instead for the candidates Washington favored-leftover brownshirt thugs from Mussolini's party and other Nazi collaborators-millions of dollars were spent on propaganda and payoffs. It was also intimated that food aid would be cut off if the election results were inconsistent with US desires.<br><br>The US got its way in 1948 without having to resort to violence but-as was discovered in 1990- the CIA had organized a secret paramilitary army in postwar Italy, with hidden stockpiles of weapons and explosives dotting the map. Called Operation Gladio (gladius is Latin for sword), the ostensible excuse for it was laughable-the threat of a Soviet invasion. But the real purpose wasn't so funny-Operation Gladio's 15,000 troops were trained to overthrow the Italian government should it stray from the straight and narrow.<br><br>(...)<br><br>Many members of Operation Gladio were also in a shadowy organization known as P-2; it too was financed by the CIA. P-2 had connections with the Vatican and the Mafia, and eventually with an international fascist umbrella organization called the World Anti- Communist League.<br><br>One of P-2's specialties was the art of provocation. Leftist organizations like the Red Brigades were infiltrated, financed and / or created, and the resulting acts of terrorism, like the assassination of Italy's premier in 1978 ( Aldo Moro ) and the bombing of the railway station in Bologna in 1980, were blamed on the left. The goal of this "strategy of tension" was to convince Italian voters that the left was violent and dangerous-by helping make it so.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Gladio_CIAHits.html">www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Gladio_CIAHits.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

2003 Operation Rockingham (UK)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:46 pm

According to reporter Neil Mackay of the Sunday Herald, Operation Rockingham was "a covert 'dirty tricks' operation" set up by the British Ministry of Defence in 1991 and "designed specifically to produce misleading intelligence that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction to give the UK a justifiable excuse to wage war on Iraq."<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Scott Ritter about Operation Rockingham</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>The very secret service<br>David Kelly referred obliquely to Operation Rockingham. What role did this mysterious cell play in justifying the Iraq war?<br>Michael Meacher<br>Friday November 21, 2003<br>The Guardian<br><br>David Kelly, giving evidence to the prime minister's intelligence and security committee in closed session on July 16 - the day before his suicide - made a comment the significance of which has so far been missed. He said: "Within the defence intelligence services I liaise with the Rockingham cell." Unfortunately nobody on the committee followed up this lead, which is a pity because the Rockingham reference may turn out to be very important indeed.<br><br>What is the role of the Rockingham cell? The evidence comes from a former chief weapons inspector in Iraq, Scott Ritter, who had been a US military intelligence officer for eight years and served on the staff of General Schwarzkopf, the US commander of allied forces in the First Gulf war. He has described himself as a card-carrying Republican who voted for Bush, but he distinguished himself in insisting before the Iraq war, and was almost alone in doing so, that almost all of Iraq's WMD had been destroyed as a result of inspections, and the rest either used or destroyed in the first Gulf war. In terms, therefore, of proven accuracy of judgment and weight of experience of the workings of western military intelligence, he is a highly reliable source.<br><br>In an interview in the Scottish Sunday Herald in June, Ritter said: "Operation Rockingham [a unit set up by defence intelligence staff within the MoD in 1991] cherry- picked intelligence. It received hard data, but had a preordained outcome in mind. It only put forward a small percentage of the facts when most were ambiguous or noted no WMD... It became part of an effort to maintain a public mindset that Iraq was not in compliance with the inspections. They had to sustain the allegation that Iraq had WMD [when] Unscom was showing the opposite."<br><br>Rockingham was, in fact, a clearing house for intelligence, but one with a predetermined political purpose. According to Ritter, "Britain and America were involved [in the 1990s and up to 2003] in a programme of joint exploitation of intelligence from Iraqi defectors. There were mountains of information coming from these defectors, and Rockingham staff were receiving it and then selectively culling [picking out] reports that sustained the [WMD] claims. They ignored the vast majority of the data which mitigated against such claims."<br><br>(...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html">www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Rockingham">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Operation_Rockingham</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1956 Operation Demagnetize

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:48 pm

Operation Demagnetize marked the institutional hardening of Operation Gladio. A State Department historian characterized it as the "strategy of stabilization, although it could be more accurately described as one of destabilization. From the start, the offensive was secretly directed and funded by the U.S. government. In 1956, the arrangement was formalized in a written agreement, using the name "Gladio for the first time. According to 1956 documents uncovered in Italy in 1990, Gladio was divided into independent cells coordinated from a CIA camp in Sardinia. These "special forces included 40 main groups. Ten specialized in sabotage, six each in espionage, propaganda, evasion and escape tactics, and 12 in guerrilla activities. Another division handled the training of agents and commandos. These "special forces had access to underground arms caches, which included hand guns, grenades, high-tech explosives, daggers, 60-millimeter mortars, 57-millimeter machine guns and precision rifles.<br><br>In 1956, Gen. Giovanni De Lorenzo was named to head SIFAR on the recommendation of U.S. Ambassador Claire Boothe Luce, the avidly anticommunist wife of the publisher of Time magazine. A key player in Gladio was now in place. In 1962, the CIA helped place De Lorenzo at the head of the national police (carabinieri), while he retained effective control of the secret service. (...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.mega.nu:8080/ampp/gladio.html">www.mega.nu:8080/ampp/gladio.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

Sept 21, 1976 Chile: Orlando Letelier assassination

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:50 pm

Orlando Letelier (1932 April 13 - 1976 September 21) was a former member of the Chilean government who was assassinated in Washington, D.C.<br><br>In 1971, Letelier was appointed ambassador to the United States by socialist Chilean President Salvador Allende. Two years later, he served as Foreign Minister, and then Defense Minister. During the period, the Nixon (and Kissinger) administration was directly engaged in an effort to destabilize Chile as a means of removing Allende from power. This, together with serious mistakes by the Chilean government, ultimately led to the coup on September 11, 1973, that brought Pinochet to power. The United States then became a strong supporter of the new Chilean dictator.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlando_Letelier">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlando_Letelier</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Are you the wife of Orlando Letelier?</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Orlando Letelier<br>from the book<br>The CIAs Greatest Hits<br>by Mark Zepezauer<br><br>"Are you the wife of Orlando Letelier?" asked the anonymous caller. "Yes," she<br>answered. "No," the caller said, ~ you are his widow."<br><br>A week later, on September 21, 1976, the exiled Chilean diplomat and prominent critic of the CIA-backed Pinochet regime was torn to pieces by a car bomb on the streets of Washington, D.C.. Also killed was Letelier's American aide, Ronni Moffit. Her husband, blown clear of the car, immediately began shouting that Chilean fascists were responsible for the atrocity. He was right, but those fascists had powerful allies in Washington. An FBI informant knew of the plot to assassinate Letelier before the fact but the FBI did nothing to protect him. After the bombing, CIA Director George H.W. Bush told the FBI that there'd been no Chilean involvement whatever. The CIA was certain of this, he said, because it had many reliable sources inside the Chilean secret police, DINA.<br><br>Actually, the CIA had known that a DINA hit squad was in the US and headed for Washington. After the bombing, the agency purged its files of photos of the assassins. The CIA and DINA then began planting stories in the press suggesting that Letelier had been killed by leftists seeking to make a martyr of him. The FBI figured out the identities of Letelier's assassins within weeks, but didn't charge them until the CIA's cover-up unraveled several years later. The unraveling began a month after the killing, when a Cuban airliner was bombed, killing 73 passengers. That bombing was done by a violent group of CIA-linked Cuban exiles who were connected with the Bay of Pigs and the JFK assassination and who went on to do similar things in El Salvador and Nicaragua.<br><br>(...)<br><br>This case is so complex that, in 1991, the Chilean Supreme Court (post-Pinochet) asked George H.W. Bush if he'd mind submitting to questioning. You'd better believe he minded.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Letelier_CIAHits.html">www.thirdworldtraveler.com/CIA%20Hits/Letelier_CIAHits.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Orlando_Letelier#Are_you_the_wife_of_Orlando_Letelier.3F">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/Orlando_Letelier#Are_you_the_wife_of_Orlando_Letelier.3F</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1958 Iraq Abd al-Karim Qasim assassination (UK+US)

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 6:52 pm

The failure of younger civilians to obtain power aroused the concern of some young military officers who, required by military discipline to take no part in politics, called themselves the Free Officers and began to organize in small groups and to lay down revolutionary plans. The number of Free Officers was relatively small, but there was a considerably larger number of sympathizers. The officers worked in cells, and the identity of the participants was kept secret. Only the Central Organization, which supplied leadership of the movement, was known to all the Free Officers. The Central Organization was composed of 14 officers, headed by 'Abd al-Karim Qasim, who held the highest military rank.<br><br>(...) On July 14 the revolutionary forces captured the capital, declared the downfall of the monarchy, and proclaimed a republic. The leading members of the royal house, including the king and crown prince, were executed. General Nuri was killed during the disturbances. Qasim, head of the revolutionary force, formed a Cabinet, over which he presided, and appointed himself commander of the National Forces. He also assumed the portfolio of defense and appointed 'Arif minister of the interior and deputy commander of the National Forces. A Council of Sovereignty, composed of three persons, was to act as head of state.<br><br>(...) Conflicts among the officers developed, first between Qasim and 'Arif and then between Qasim and his supporters. 'Arif championed the Pan-Arab cause and advocated Iraq's union with the U.A.R. Qasim rallied the forces against Arab unity-- Kurds, communists, and others--and stressed Iraq's own identity and internal unity. 'Arif was dropped from power in October, but in 1959 Qasim's power was threatened by other factions. He tried to divert public attention to foreign affairs by advancing Iraq's claim to Kuwait's sovereignty in June 1961. This brought him into conflict not only with Britain and Kuwait but also with the other Arab countries. He opened negotiations with the Iraq Petroleum Company to increase Iraq's royalties, but his extreme demands resulted in the breakdown of negotiations in 1961. Public Law 80 was enacted to prohibit the granting of concessions to any foreign company and to transfer control over all matters connected with oil to an Iraq National Oil Company (INOC).<br><br>By 1963 Qasim had become isolated internally as well as externally; the only great power with which he remained friendly was the Soviet Union. When one faction of the army, in cooperation with one Arab nationalist group--the Iraqi regional branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'th ("Revivalist" or "Renaissance") Party--started a rebellion in February 1963, the regime suddenly collapsed, and Qasim was executed.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.angelfire.com/nt/Gilgamesh/58.html">www.angelfire.com/nt/Gilgamesh/58.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>CIA involvement in coup of Abd al-Karim Qasim</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Exclusive Saddam key in early CIA plot<br>By Richard Sale<br>UPI Intelligence Correspondent<br>Published 4/10/2003 7:30 PM<br><br>U.S. forces in Baghdad might now be searching high and low for Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, but in the past Saddam was seen by U.S. intelligence services as a bulwark of anti-communism and they used him as their instrument for more than 40 years, according to former U.S. intelligence diplomats and intelligence officials.<br><br>United Press International has interviewed almost a dozen former U.S. diplomats, British scholars and former U.S. intelligence officials to piece together the following account. The CIA declined to comment on the report. While many have thought that Saddam first became involved with U.S. intelligence agencies at the start of the September 1980 Iran-Iraq war, his first contacts with U.S. officials date back to 1959, when he was part of a CIA-authorized six-man squad tasked with assassinating then Iraqi Prime Minister Gen. Abd al-Karim Qasim.<br><br>SNIP...<br><br>Little attention was paid to Qasim's bloody and conspiratorial regime until his sudden decision to withdraw from the pact in 1959, an act that "freaked everybody out" according to a former senior U.S. State Department official. Washington watched in marked dismay as Qasim began to buy arms from the Soviet Union and put his own domestic communists into ministry positions of "real power," according to this official. The domestic instability of the country prompted CIA Director Allen Dulles to say publicly that Iraq was "the most dangerous spot in the world."<br><br>In the mid-1980s, Miles Copeland, a veteran CIA operative, told UPI the CIA had enjoyed "close ties" with Qasim's ruling Baath Party, just as it had close connections with the intelligence service of Egyptian leader Gamel Abd Nassar. In a recent public statement, Roger Morris, a former National Security Council staffer in the 1970s, confirmed this claim, saying that the CIA had chosen the authoritarian and anti- communist Baath Party "as its instrument."<br><br>CONTINUED…<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20030410-070214-6557r">www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20030410-070214-6557r</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1985 Costa Rica - Plot to bomb the American embassy

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 7:26 pm

The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror<br>by David Hoffman<br><br>Copyright © 1998 David Hoffman<br><br>Published online with the irrevocable permission of the author to republish with attribution on a non-profit basis.<br><br>Chapter 14: A strategy of tension<br><br>(...)<br>A similar government-orchestrated outrage-incident was the Octopus' 1985 plot to bomb the American embassy and presidential offices in Costa Rica as a pretext for a full-scale U.S. invasion of Nicaragua. The plan was an offshoot of Operation Pegasus, the CIA's program of political assassinations, similar to the Phoenix Program.<br><br>The conspiracy was akin to the many American-engineered provocations of the past. The U.S. — through the skullduggery of the CIA — would bomb their own embassy, cleverly blaming it on the Sandinistas.<br><br>Civilian Military Assistance (CMA) leader Tom Posey and his band of mercenaries — Steven Carr, Robert Thompson, Rene Corvo, and Costa Rican-American land-owners John Hull and Bruce Jones — arranged for a patriotic Cuban-American, Jesus Garcia, to take part in the plot. According to Leslie Cockburn (Out of Control) Posey showed Garcia the blueprints of the embassy. "They came to me with a plan to hit the American embassy in Costa Rica," recalls Garcia. "They had an idea this would start a war between Nicaragua and the United States."<br><br>In addition to bombing the embassy, they were to "take out" the American ambassador, Lewis Tambs, a vocal opponent of the Colombian/Contra cocaine trade, and collect the $1 million reward that the Ochoa clan had placed on his head. The CIA-led group, which had been funding their covert operations through arms and drug trafficking, would solve the problem of an American official who had dared interfere with their profitable business, while at the same time, serving the lofty goals of U.S. foreign policy.[2]<br><br>According to CMA mercenary Jack Terrell, the plan was to place C-4 in a light-box outside the embassy and detonate it. When Tambs ran outside, he would be shot. A Nicaraguan would then be killed and fake documents placed on his person to incriminate the Sandinistas.[3]<br><br>While Garcia refused to participate in the plot, he recalled, "The embassy plan was blessed from the White House. There were too many big people involved in this. In order to hit a U.S. embassy even us Cubans who are here in Miami would normally out of courtesy notify the CIA."<br><br>Considering the players involved, it appeared that the CIA knew fully well of the plot, as it drew members from Brigade 2506, Ted Shackley's old JM/WAVE anti-Castro Cuban mercenary group.[4]<br><br>A second plot designed to draw the U.S. into the war involved the bombing of Los Chiles, a small town along the border of Costa Rica. The plan was to use a plane painted to look like a Sandinista craft to drop bombs on the unarmed townspeople. Terrell described it as a "continuous undercurrent of… really terrorist activity to try to draw the United States Government into direct conflict with the Nicaraguans because they were to be made to look like they were committing overt acts against a neutral and unarmed country, Costa Rica."[5]<br><br>Garcia later learned that another hit was planned, this time on the Cuban and Soviet embassies in Nicaragua. The plan was proposed to Garcia by Major Alan Saum, a confederate of Posey's and General Vernon Walters, U.S. ambassador to the UN and former Deputy Director of the CIA. As Garcia later testified in court, "Saum had come from the White House." Saum told Garcia the plan was "Vice-President Bush's baby."<br><br>While neither plot was carried out, the Octopus did manage to successfully murder eight people, mostly reporters, at La Penca, Costa Rica on May 30, 1984. The target was Eden Pastora, a Contra leader who wasn't going along with the plan, and was about to announce his misgivings at a press conference. CIA Deputy Director Dewy Clarridge had recently relayed a message to Pastora through Alfonso Robelo (who had previously met with Bud McFarlane at the White House) that his story would be "stopped" if he did not acquiesce.[6]<br><br>The bombing was carried out by Amac Galil, who posed as a photographer, carrying a bomb inside a camera case. CIA "hit-man" Felipe Vidal told Terrell that Galil was a Mossad agent. He allegedly received his explosives training from John Harper, and his C- 4 courtesy of John Hull. Vidal also told Terrell, "…we put a bomb under him and it didn't work because of bad timing."<br><br>As Terrell later stated: "…if anything happens to these people, whether they were carrying out directly or indirectly any plan of our government, it's easy to be at arm's length and have this great big beautiful deniability factor."[7]<br><br>Naturally, the Washington Post and New York Times blamed the bombing on the Sandinistas.[8][9](...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.constitution.org/ocbpt/ocbpt_14.htm">www.constitution.org/ocbpt/ocbpt_14.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1990 Bulgaria - failed attempted to rig an election

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 7:28 pm

The cold war was over. The forces of Western Civilization, Capitalism and Goodness had won. The Soviet Union was on the verge of falling apart. The Communist Party of Bulgaria was in disgrace. Its dictatorial leader of 35 years was being prosecuted for abuses of power. The party had changed its name, but that wouldn't fool anybody. And the country was holding its first multiparty election in 45 years.<br><br>The National Endowment for Democracy, Washington's specially created stand-in for the CIA, with funding in this case primarily from the Agency for International Development, was pouring some $2 million into Bulgaria to influence the outcome of the election, a process the NED calls promoting democracy. This was equivalent to a foreign power injecting more than $50 million into an American electoral campaign. One major recipient of this largesse was the newspaper of the opposition Union of Democratic Forces, Demokratzia, which received $233,000 of newsprint, "to allow it to increase its size and circulation for the period leading up to the national elections". The UDF itself received another $615,000 of American taxpayer money for "infrastructure support and party training" ... "material and technical support" ... and "post-electoral assistance for the UDF's party building program".{3}<br><br>The United States made little attempt to mask its partisanship. On June 9, the day before election day, the US ambassador to Bulgaria, Sol Polansky, appeared on the platform of a UDF rally.{4} Polansky, whose early government career involved intelligence research, was a man who had had more than a passing acquaintance with the CIA. Moreover, several days earlier, the State Department had taken the unusual step of publicly criticizing the Bulgarian government for what it called the inequitable distribution of resources for news outlets, especially newsprint for opposition newspapers, as if this was not a fact of life for genuine opposition forces in the United States and every other country in the world. The Bulgarian government responded that the opposition had received newsprint and access to the broadcast outlets in accordance with an agreement between the parties, adding that many of the Socialist Party's advantages, especially its financial reserves, resulted from the party's membership of one million, about a ninth of Bulgaria's population. The government had further provided the printing plant to publish the UDF newspaper and had given the opposition coalition the building from which to run its operations.{5}<br><br>Then, the communists proceeded to win the election.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://members.aol.com/bblum6/bulgaria.htm">members.aol.com/bblum6/bulgaria.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

Re: 2004 Haiti Coup

Postby DrDebugDU » Tue Jul 19, 2005 7:37 pm

The 2004 Haiti rebellion was a conflict fought for several weeks in Haiti during February 2004 that resulted in the premature end of President Jean- Bertrand Aristide's second term.<br><br>On May 2003, a group of at least 20 paramilitary soldiers—trained and funded by the US — cross into Haiti from the neighboring Dominican Republic and attack a hydroelectric power plant on Haiti's central plateau. Shortly after the attack, Dominican authorities, arrest five men, including Guy Philippe [1]and Paul Arcelin, who they believe are plotting the overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide's government.<br><br>Also at this time, there is a US build-up along the Dominican border, where “900 US soldiers patrol jointly with the Dominican army, whom they have armed with 20,000 M16s.” Ben Dupuy, general secretary of the left-wing party PPN, tells the left-wing Haiti Progres, “There is no doubt these guys are true terrorists working with the CIA under Dominican protection.” [2]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Operation</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Beginning in Gonaïves with the capture of that city's police station on February 5, the rebellion quickly spread to the nearby port city of Saint-Marc. [3]. Rebels take over cities in northern Haiti and move towards Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince, overrunning Aristide's local police forces and vowing to overthrow President Jean-Bertrand Aristide [4]<br><br>Barbara Lee writes a letter to Colin Powell accusing the United States of intentionally subverting democracy in Haiti:<br><br>“I must say, Mr. Secretary, that our failure to support the democratic process and help restore order looks like a covert effort to help overthrow a government. There is a violent coup d’etat in the making, and it appears that the United States is aiding and abetting the attempt to violently topple the Aristide Government.”<br><br><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK START--><a href="http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Feb11.htm">www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Feb11.htm</a><!--EZCODE AUTOLINK END--><br><br>On Feb 28, 2004 Jean-Bertrand Aristide informs Jamaican Prime Minister P.J. Patterson that he does not plan to resign [5]. The security of Aristide is provided by the Steele Foundation. US officials delay a small group of additional bodyguards from the Steele Foundation on their way to Haiti. [6]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Kidnapping</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>On February 29, 2004 Aristide was kidnapped by U.S. soldiers escorted on a US-charted to Dominican Republic and then to the Central African Republic. [7]<br><br>Colin Powell called the allegations absolutely baseless, absurd. Absolutely false, Luis Moreno, the U.S. Embassy official in Haiti who accompanied Aristide to the airport Sunday, told The Herald. [8]. Luis Moreno came to Aristide's Palace to pick him up at 4 AM and Artistide knew why he was there. [9]According to Joseph Pierre, a concierge at Aristide's residence, whose account is reported in the French newspaper Libération, Aristide is taken away early Sunday morning by US soldiers. [10]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>U.S. Invasion</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>On March 1, 2004, US President George W. Bush announces that the US is sending US forces to Haiti to help stabilize the country. [11]<br><br>CARICOM governments denounced the "removal" of Mr. Aristide from government. They also questioned the legality of subsequent American-backed maneouvers to install a new president. The Prime Minister of Jamaica, P.J. Patterson said that, the episode "sets a dangerous precedent for democratically elected governments anywhere and everywhere, as it promotes the removal of duly elected persons from office by the power of rebel forces." [12]<br><br>As of April 2004, the United States, France, Canada and Chile have troops in Haiti as part of a force sanctioned by the United Nations.<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Aristide lost their democracy</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>US Department of State<br>Date: 14 Apr 2004<br><br>Roger F. Noriega, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs<br>Remarks to American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC<br><br>Some people look at Haitian history, shrug their shoulders, and say, "Well, it's Haiti, what do you expect?" That cynical perspective overlooks that fact that many times in the past the Haitian people have made great efforts to establish true democracy, only to be undermined from within by the selfish ambitions of a petty tyrant and from without by the low expectations of their friends and neighbors. The Bush Administration believes that if we all do our part and do it right, Haiti will have the democracy it deserves.<br><br>I do want to talk to you about those prospects and what the United States will do to help the Haitian people fulfill them, but I realize that to articulate how the United States sees the way ahead, I have to explain how we found ourselves in the present predicament...how the hopes and aspirations of the Haitian people for a truly representative government have been frustrated in the past. It is a familiar story. It is the story of how a popular leader who promises radical change only to become what he once beheld. Sadly this story is not unique to Haiti. It is, if anything, a cautionary tale for leaders and citizens of democracies everywhere.<br><br>A Brief History of Haiti and the Aristide Regime, or How to Lose your Democracy<br><br>(...) In hindsight, the Aristide regime bore too much of a resemblance to the Duvalier regime. Despite his early promise and lipservice to democracy, the Aristide years were yet another disappointing chapter in Haitian history. The lesson is that democracy is not an election, a street demonstration, or a dusty legal document, it is a way of living and working together and, as such, it is contingent on what people do and how they treat one another. Leaders can undermine a republic and their own legitimacy by their actions and that is how a people can lose their democracy. (...)<br><br>US Engagement<br><br>(...) We have already begun to put these principles into action. As Secretary Powell announced during his visit last week, we are deploying a team of seven security experts to the appropriate Haitian government ministries and agencies to aid Haitian officials as they rebuild their security and justice systems. The U.S. Treasury Department will send a team to Haiti to determine the technical assistance needed by the Ministry of Finance, and we are prepared to assist Haitian authorities in the recovery of assets that may have been illegally diverted. (...)<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/7ed7186e73a70acec1256e77004a302a?OpenDocument">www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/ 7ed7186e73a70acec1256e77004a302a?OpenDocument</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Aristide Arrives in Jamaica</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Kingston, Jamaica (March 15)--Democracy Now! host Amy Goodman reports that Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide has arrived in the Caribbean nation of Jamaica. Moments after his plane touched down at Norman Manley International Airport at approximately 2:20 pm EST, Aristide and his wife Mildred were escorted to a helicopter, which transported them to an undisclosed location on the island nation.<br><br>(...) In returning to the Caribbean, Aristide is defying the Bush administration, which has stated clearly it does not want Aristide in the Western Hemisphere. Meanwhile, the US-installed "prime minister" of Haiti said today he was recalling Haiti's ambassador to Jamaica and putting relations on hold over Aristide's return to the region. The US has also criticized Jamaica for offering to host Aristide. "Jamaican authorities are certainly taking on a risk and a responsibility," said James Foley, the US Ambassador to Haiti. "His coming within 150 miles from Haiti is promoting violence."<br><br>"Ambassador Foley's responses are unfortunate," Jamaican emissary Hay-Webster told Democracy Now!<br>She said: "[Jamaican] Prime Minister Patterson, as chairman of CARICOM, took that position not as a personal consideration but as a response to a request by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and also in conjunction with speaking to his other colleages in the Caribbean - that is the prime ministers and presidents of the other nations within the Caribbean. This is not a singular decision from Jamaica. This is decision by Caricom. Is the ambassador threatening all of Caricom? He may have a lot of surprises ahead."<br><br>California Congressmember Maxine Waters (D-CA), who led the delegation that escorted Aristide back to the Caribbean, told Democracy Now!: "I am sure this is another effort directed at trying to make this [new Haitian] government legitimate. The fact of the matter is President Aristide was democratically-elected by the people and this new government certainly [was not]. The [US-installed] president was not, so I just think it's just a meaningless gesture."<br><br>(...) with radio links:<br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/03/15/1615213">www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/03/15/1615213</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>How Bolton Armed Haiti's Thugs and Killers</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>May 3, 2005 Diplomacy By Death Squad<br>How Bolton Armed Haiti's Thugs and Killers<br>By IRA KURZBAN<br>Miami, Florida<br><br>The Bush administration's response has been to place more weapons in the hands of these police. During Haiti's democratic administrations, the U.S. government imposed a full-scale arms embargo on nonlethal as well as lethal weapons to the Haitian Police. They could not even buy bullet-proof vests or tear gas to disperse crowds.<br><br>In November 2004, however, John Bolton, as under secretary for arms control in the Department of State, signed off on providing the current police, under a nondemocratic government, more than 3,635 M14 rifles, 1,100 Mini Galils, several thousand assorted 0.38-caliber pistols, 3,700 MP5s and approximately one million rounds of ammunition, according to the Small Arms Survey, an authoritative resource published by the Graduate Institute of International Studies, located in Geneva.<br><br>It is no surprise that Bolton is at the center of this controversy as well. He has been one of the hard-liners in the State Department who sought the overthrow of Aristide and who bullied intelligence analysts on Haiti who were trying to provide a more- balanced picture. Even his cohort in overthrowing Aristide, Otto Reich, was quoted as stating that they both rightfully went after an intelligence analyst who gave the benefit of the doubt to Aristide as the democratically elected president.<br><br>Perhaps Bolton can explain to members of the Senate when they reconvene why he would place more weapons in the hands of thugs and murderers whose police work is composed largely of executing peaceful demonstrators who are demanding the return of democracy to Haiti.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.counterpunch.org/kurzban05032005.html">www.counterpunch.org/kurzban05032005.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Guy Philippe</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br><br>Guy Philippe (born February 29, 1968) was a rebel leader in Haiti during the 2004 Haiti rebellion. He was the police chief of Haiti's second-largest city, Cap-Haitien, until October 2000, when he was accused of organizing a coup attempt. Philippe fled to the Dominican Republic, where he remained until a rebellion against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide began in February 2004. On February 14, he crossed the border back into Haiti and announced, alongside the notorious former militia leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain, that he was joining the rebels. On February 19, he was named as the commander of the rebel army by Buteur Metayer, the self- proclaimed president of rebel-held areas.<br><br>Guy Philippe was trained by U.S. Intelligence Special Forces in Ecuador in the early 1990s.<br><br>He has said that the man he most admires is former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet. He praises the former dictator as the man who "made Chile what it is.'"<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Philippe">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Philippe</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.blackcommentator.com/42/42_issues.html">www.blackcommentator.com/42/42_issues.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html">www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(3) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Haiti_Rebellion">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Haiti_Rebellion</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(4) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/023004A.shtml">www.truthout.org/docs_04/023004A.shtml</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(5) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti">www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(6) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6072&fcategory_desc=Haiti">www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6072&fcategory_desc=Haiti</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(7) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3524273.stm">news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3524273.stm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(8) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/haiti/kidnap.htm">www.latinamericanstudies.org/haiti/kidnap.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(9) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/haiti/account.htm">www.latinamericanstudies.org/haiti/account.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(10) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5985&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported">www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5985&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(11) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5967&fcategory_desc=Haiti">www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5967&fcategory_desc=Haiti</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(12) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2474164">www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2474164</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/2004_Haiti_Coup">demopedia.democraticunderground.com/index.php/2004_Haiti_Coup</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1956 Tibet

Postby DrDebugDU » Wed Jul 20, 2005 7:30 am

After the Chinese bombing of ancient monasteries at Chatreng and Litang that housed thousands of civilans in 1956 which violated the Plan for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, the CIA aided Chushi Gandrug and Tensung Dhanglang Magar's resistance movement. [1]<br><br>Norbu, Dalai Lama's brother, heard that the American Committee for Free Asia, a CIA cover organization, invited him to come to the USA to discuss guerrilla activity against China [2]<br><br>The CIA decided to train a small army of Tibetan refugees consisting mainly of Khampas, the inhabitions of East-Tibet and trained them on an unknown island north of the Great Ocean (possibly Guam).<br><br>A year later they were dropped over Tibet to organize the resistance. Each was suppied a gun, a small automatic weapon and an ancient Japanese radio. <br><br>But even with the CIA aid the Tibetan freedom fighters were terribly poor equipped. The weapon droppings often caused more damaged than the Chinese. Since the CIA wanted to be untraceable, as the Dalai Lama wrote, they dropped inferior bazookas and antique British riffles which were left behind in India. However the rough treatment implied that they were usually broken.<br><br>In 1960 a base was established in Mustang, North Nepal, to train the Khampas for the liberation of Tibet. The CIA wanted to recruit about 300 freedom fighters, but between 700 and 800 showed up and the Statesman ran an article about the mysterious exodus of the Khampas. Due to the high number of participants and the early leak the CIA almost decided to call off the whole plan.<br><br>Some attacks were carried out within occupied Tibet and they managed to take the road to Lhasa in the district of Xinjiang. In 1962 the Special Fronteir Force (also known as Establishment 22) was established to protect the Indian border against Chinese raids under control of the Indian Intelligence. A base camp was set up near Dehra Dun and an army of 10,500 Tibetan refugees was trained. In 1962 a group 500 Tibetans was being secretly trained in Camp Hale, Colorado Springs.<br><br>The Nepalese government was getting concerned about the amount of armed guerrillas in their country. Also the U.S. Government was getting worried about being exposed for funding and arming resistence against China. In 1965 the CIA started to withdraw support for the Tibetan resistance. [2]<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.worldhistory.com/wiki/L/List-of-U.S.-foreign-interventions-since-1945.htm">www.worldhistory.com/wiki/L/List-of-U.S.-foreign-interventions-since-1945.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) Mary Craig, Kundun (1997) <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

2004 Equatorial Guinea. Attempted Coup (US/UK/Spain)

Postby DrDebugDU » Wed Jul 20, 2005 7:39 am

In March 2004, Obiang announced that there was a complex plot to overthrow him that involved the intelligence services of the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain. Shortly after 15 people were arrested in Equatorial Guinea in connection with a possible coup attempt, an airplane landed in Harare, Zimbabwe and was promptly detained by authorities. <br><br>The Zimbabwean government claimed that the aircraft was carrying armed mercenaries who were heading to Equatorial Guinea with the aim of toppling Obiang's government. <br><br>President Obiang charges that various Western governments wanted to install the head of Equatorial Guinea's government-in-exile, Severo Moto Nsá, as president. A man that Equatoguinean media identified as the leader of the mercenaries, Nick du Toit, said he had not intended to kill Obiang, but had hoped to force him into exile.<br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.worldhistory.com/wiki/T/Teodoro-Obiang-Nguema-Mbasogo.htm">www.worldhistory.com/wiki/T/Teodoro-Obiang-Nguema-Mbasogo.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Pentagon link to Guinea coup plot</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>Bush official was warned of trouble brewing in oil-rich state<br>David Leigh, David Pallister and Jamie Wilson<br>Monday September 27, 2004<br>The Guardian<br><br>Links have been discovered between senior American military officials and the failed coup plot in Equatorial Guinea that has left Sir Mark Thatcher facing trial in South Africa.<br><br>Theresa Whelan, a member of the Bush administration in charge of African affairs at the Pentagon, twice met a London-based businessman, Greg Wales, in Washington before the coup attempt. Mr Wales has been accused of being one of its organisers, but has denied any involvement. <br><br>A US defence official told Newsweek magazine yesterday: "Mr Wales mentioned in passing _ there might be some trouble brewing in Equatorial Guinea. Specifically, he had heard from some business associates of his that wealthy citizens of the country were planning to flee in case of a crisis."<br><br>The regime of President Teodoro Obiang Nguema in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea has accused the US of backing the plot, but the Pentagon denies supporting it. US officials say it was Mr Wales who made all the approaches to them. <br><br>Equatorial Guinea official sources claim that last November, when the plot was in its early stages, an Old Etonian mercenary, Simon Mann, paid Mr Wales about $8,000. Mann was subsequently jailed for seven years in Zimbabwe on charges linked to the coup plot. <br><br>A few days after the alleged payment, Mr Wales went to Washington for a dinner and conference organised by an influential group of US "private military companies", the IPOA (International Peace Operations Association). <br><br>Ms Whelan told the group the Pentagon was keen to see them operate in Africa, saying: "Contractors are here to stay in supporting US national security objectives overseas." They were cheaper, and saved the use of US forces in peacekeeping and training. <br><br>She added: "The US can be supportive in trying to ameliorate regional crises without necessarily having to put US troops on the ground, which is often a very difficult political decision _ Sometimes we may not want to be very visible." <br><br>IPOA's members include MPRI, a company formed by retired generals. MPRI had already been allowed to compile a survey of Equatorial Guinea's military weaknesses on President Obiang's behalf, overcoming initial objections by the Clinton administration that it would help prop up a dictator. <br><br>MPRI persuaded the Pentagon it would be in the US national interest to allow the survey to be done, although the company never went ahead with a planned contract to strengthen Mr Obiang's army. <br><br>Mr Wales made his first contact with Ms Whelan at the dinner. The following January his firm, the Sherbourne Foundation, was paid another $35,000 by the coup plotters, according to Equatorial Guinea. <br><br>Mr Wales then organised another meeting at the Pentagon with Ms Whelan. This came on the eve of the day originally planned for the coup, February 19. The Pentagon says the meeting in "mid-to-late February" ranged over many African topics, and that Mr Wales's hints were so general that they did not call for any action to be taken. <br><br>Mr Wales, who denies any involvement in the coup plot, has refused to comment on any of these fresh allegations. <br><br>The Obiang regime has complained that the US did not warn it of the coup plot, although it received intelligence from South Africa. <br><br>The February 19 plan is said to have been aborted after a hired aircraft broke down. The plotters then acquired an old former US Air National Guard Boeing, built to a military specification, that was flown over from Kansas with a crew from Florida for a second coup attempt. But the seller, the US firm Dodson Aviation, says there was no US government involvement in the deal. <br><br>Both the US and Britain have extensive oil interests in Equatorial Guinea which, in the words of one US official, is "the new Kuwait". <br><br>The Texas company Marathon is building a huge liquefied natural gas plant, of which the British gas firm BG plans to buy much of the output for the next 17 years. <br><br>There is a good deal of unofficial sympathy in US military circles for the coup plotters. One of those present at the original IPOA dinner said yesterday, requesting anonymity: "Ethically, you have to want to see Obiang removed. <br><br>"It's a real indictment of the international community that they've failed to get rid of him." <br><br><!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1313571,00.html">www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1313571,00.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

1966 Operation Cold Chop (Ghana)

Postby DrDebugDU » Wed Jul 20, 2005 8:09 am

Kwame Nkrumah became the first prime and later president of Ghana. He was born on September 21, 1909, at Nkroful in what was then the British-ruled Gold Coast, the son of a goldsmith. Trained as a teacher, he went to the United States in 1935 for advanced studies and continued his schooling in England, where he helped organize the Pan-African Congress in 1945. He returned to Ghana in 1947 and became general secretary of the newly founded United Gold Coast Convention but split from it in 1949 to form the Convention People's party (CPP).<br><br>After his 'positive action' campaign created disturbances in 1950, Nkrumah was jailed, but when the CPP swept the 1951 elections, he was freed to form a government, and he led the colony to independence as Ghana in 1957. A firm believer in African liberation, Nkrumah pursued a radical pan-African policy, playing a key role in the formation of the Organization of African Unity in 1963. As head of government, he was less successful however, and as time passed he was accused of forming a dictatorship. In 1964 he formed a one-party state, with himself as president for life, and was accused of actively promoting a cult of his own personality. (1)<br><br>Kwame Nkrumah introduces his Soviet-inspired Seven-Year Plan to establish state-owned factories and public authorities. The projects are financed by foreign loans and taxes, saddling the country with debt and stifling certain sectors of the economy. Cocoa production in Ghana drops dramatically when farmers, whose income has been reduced by the government marketing board's price controls, begin smuggling cocoa to neighboring countries or switch to other crops. As a result, Ghana ceases to be the world's largest cocoa producer. Burdened with debt, the Ghanaian economy contracts, undermining the Nkrumah government's popularity. The downturn brings widespread unrest (4)<br><br>In his March 22 speech Nkrumah laid blame on the US for many of Africa's problems. (5) Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was seen as a threat because he chose to establish relations with Russia and China. He allowed the Chinese to open their first embassy on the African continent. Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was someone who the Americans did not want to see remain in power. As a part of this CIA-planned coup, according to Seymour Hersch's writings, the CIA had planned to attack the embassy of China in Accra, kill everyone in the embassy, steal their documents and bum the embassy. The dirty tricks part of this was that those men that were to be used would paint their faces black, giving the impression that Black men had taken this course of action. (3)<br><br>Before Dr. Kwame Nkrumah had departed from Ghana, he phoned President Lyndon Johnson to ask if America could hold or discontinue the bombing of North Vietnam (Hanoi in particular) while he was there to meet with Ho Chi Min. When he finished in North Vietnam, his plan was to journey to the US. He telegraphed his moves to the American government. The United States government saw his Pan Africanist views as a threat. The fact was that he was using Ghana as the base to help other struggling revolutionaries in Africa. (3)<br><br>Additionally, the military was upset with Nkrumah's cuts to the defense budget and the declining real wage of army officers. The coup itself was supported by the CIA, which had maintained intimate contact with the plotters for at least a year (5) US ambassador to Ghana William P. Mahoney meets with CIA Director John A. McCone and the deputy chief of the CIA's Africa division to discuss a “Coup d'etat Plot” in Ghana. According to a CIA document summarizing the meeting, “In the interests of further weakening Nkrumah,” Mahoney recommends that the US deny Nkrumah's forthcoming request for financial assistance, according to the CIA memo. He adds that by refusing the request it would make a “desirable impression on other countries in Africa,” the memo also says. In the event of a coup, Mahoney says a military junta would likely come to power.<br><br>On 24 February, 1966, the bubble did not merely burst, it exploded! In the early morning hours, Ghana's armed forces, with the cooperation of the National Police, took over government in "Operation Cold Chop", a well organized coup d'etat. The first announcement made from Radio Ghana said that the coup was led by Colonel Emmanual Kwasi Kotoka of the 2nd Infantry Brigade. Kotoka, an outstanding soldier, was a national hero, honored for valor and bravery while serving as part of Ghana's United Nations 1960 and 1961 Congo contingent. A National Liberation Council was formed to run the affairs of state. Parliament was dissolved. Nkrumah's ruling political organization, the Convention People's Party (C.P.P.), was banned and Nkrumah himself was dismissed as President of Ghana's First Republic. The reign of the Osegyefo, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, was over. (2)<br><br><!--EZCODE BOLD START--><strong>Sources</strong><!--EZCODE BOLD END--><br>(1) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.africawithin.com/nkrumah/nkrumah_bio.htm">www.africawithin.com/nkrumah/nkrumah_bio.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(2) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.greatepicbooks.com/epics/january98.html">www.greatepicbooks.com/epics/january98.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(3) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.globalafrica.com/AkbarDoc.htm">www.globalafrica.com/AkbarDoc.htm</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(4) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/prof_kwamenkrumah.html">www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/prof_kwamenkrumah.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(5) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/entity.jsp?entity=kwame_nkrumah">www.cooperativeresearch.org/entity.jsp?entity=kwame_nkrumah</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--><br>(6) <!--EZCODE LINK START--><a href="http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxiv/y.html">www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxiv/y.html</a><!--EZCODE LINK END--> <p></p><i></i>
DrDebugDU
 
Posts: 808
Joined: Wed Jul 13, 2005 12:56 pm
Blog: View Blog (0)

PreviousNext

Return to Data And Research

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests