Thy Will Be Done

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Thy Will Be Done

Postby chlamor » Sun Jul 15, 2007 9:22 pm


NELSON ROCKEFELLER and Evangelism in the Age of Oil

"Thy Will Be Done", The Conquest of the Amazon:

by Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett
Harper Collins, 1995. 960 pages

reviewed by Carmelo Ruiz

Carmelo Ruiz is a Puerto Rican journalist and research associate at the institute for Social Ecology

Those who read books on American foreign policy in search of titillating revelations of sensational CIA covert operations while neglecting to study the social, political and historical context in which they are embedded will find this book a difficult, even annoying, read. Conspiracy buffs may have an encyclopedic knowledge of CIA intrigues and scandals, but they're not interested at all in doing the hard intellectual work of learning about the nature of the system of corporate profit and exploitation which intelligence agencies were created to serve. They will undoubtedly be frustrated by the book's scholarly dose of anthropology, linguistics and history, and will probably skim through the pages in search of startling revelations of covert intrigue and secret wars. The authors' implicit message to the self-proclaimed conspiracy researchers is clear: that all the muckraking investigative journalism in the world will not bring about social change if it is not accompanied by a critical analysis of the economic, political and historical context of the times we're living.

Upon a superficial examination, one would tend to think that the book will appeal to the Bible-thumping, right-wing populists of the John Birch fringe who despise the Rockefellers. This band of the American political spectrum, which has been known to publicize bizarre allegations of a Rockefeller--orchestrated plot to create a socialist world government, will be baffled and perplexed by one of Thy Will be Done's chief conclusions: that they've been had. According to Colby and Dennett, far from being a threat to the Machiavellian power of the Rockefellers, the Christian fundamentalists were extremely useful in furthering the global designs of the heirs of the Standard Oil fortune.

On the other hand, left-leaning liberals will find the book's conclusions even harder to swallow, since the Rockefeller philanthropies (which include the Rockefeller Foundation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Rockefeller Family Fund) are among the main funding sources of liberal political activism in the US, including civil liberties, feminism and the environmental movement. Beneficiaries of Rockefeller charitable giving in recent years have included groups like Essential Information, the ACLU, the Ms. Foundation, the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, Environmental Action, the Student Environmental Action Coalition, the Center for Responsive Politics, the NAACP who are much more likely to say, "Wait, you're being a little unbalanced. Sure, they've done terrible things in the past, but they're funding some really terrific stuff nowadays." As much as one may try to rationalize the embarassing predicament of taking money from the ultra-rich to finance social change, the question remains: What are the prospects for an American progressive agenda when it is heavily dependent on funding from a philanthropic system that owes its forhine to commercial activities that destroy ecosystems worldwide, erode biological diversity and create a holocaust for indigenous peoples? Colby and Dennett do not pose that question to readers, but it will certainly hover ominously over the mind of any American reader whose political beliefs are at least five degrees to the left of National Public Radio or The New Republic.

Thy Will be Done is a very challenging and deeply disturbing book. Although much lip service has been paid to the concept of holistic thinking, Colby and Dennett do actually put together the pieces of the macabre puzzle of the destruction of the Amazon rain-forest and the genocide of its indigenous dwellers and reach conclusions that are unsettling for conservatives and liberals alike. All or most environmentalists agree that the destruction of the Amazon rainforest can't be seen as separate from a host of social, political and economic factors in South America as well as in industrialized countries like the US, but it takes nothing less than a book like Thy Will be Done to show what this actually means. ... elism.html
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Postby Jeff » Sun Jul 15, 2007 9:32 pm

Excellent and important book.

I learned about it, and knew I had to have it, by reading Lisa Pease's Amazon list JFK Assassination Demystified. ("This book contains a history of many of the CIA's blackest moments. Crucial for the historical context.") That's its strength. There's not much pertaining to the assassination, but it provides deep, general context on secret power relations and parapolitics.

Colby's also a contributor to the collection Into the Buzzsaw, on media and power in America. He describes how his earlier book on the Du Pont dynasty was too hot for his publisher, who subverted its chances of success.
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Postby wordspeak2 » Mon Jul 16, 2007 10:09 am

Great book! Should be on a short must-read list.

Separately, has anyone read "The Occult Roots of Nazism"? I just ordered it.

Does anyone happen to know where the old "favorite books" thread is? It was at least six months, and some folks had recommendations that I wanted to take.

Thanks for starting this forum, Jeff.
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Postby MASONIC PLOT » Mon Jul 16, 2007 10:47 am

Book thread is right here in this forum. I just had Jeff move it over here.

Postby Dreams End » Mon Jul 16, 2007 3:27 pm

Just wanting to find books on missionary work as cover for this sort of thing. Thanks for that. Anyone know of any books specifically on missionaries and the like being used as CIA cover?

I have Occult Roots of Nazism. It is very good, very sober, and no sensationalism. It will not make the claim that the Nazis were primarily a black magic oriented group but it meticulously traces the various occult and mythological beliefs which informed their worldview and became part of Nazi ideology.

It is also VERY dense, so be prepared for a book that will possibly serve you better as a reference than as an initial read. He has several others. One on on Savitri Devi...I'd be happy to have all of his.
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Postby Hugh Manatee Wins » Mon Jul 16, 2007 4:40 pm

Dreams End wrote:Just wanting to find books on missionary work as cover for this sort of thing. Thanks for that. Anyone know of any books specifically on missionaries and the like being used as CIA cover?.

Try Sara Diamond's excellent 1989 book called-
'Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right'

She goes into all the fascist ties to religious groups which become assets or are just fronts.
World Vision, Wycliffe Bible Translators, Hearst and Luce "puffing" Billy Graham to build him up as an asset, etc.

And that was just by 1989. Even more since then.
CIA runs mainstream media since WWII:
news rooms, movies/TV, publishing
Disney is CIA for kidz!
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Postby robert d reed » Sat Sep 01, 2007 10:34 pm

Thy Will Be Done has quite a bit of material on the specific topic of the use of missionaries as intelligence assets by agencies of the US government- particularly the Baptist Wyclyffe Bible Translators. Although no one should get the mistaken impression that Wyclyffe was created primarily as a spy project...they've done probably more than any other institution to preserve indigenous languages. Their missionaries are typically highly skilled phonetic linguists, and they pay their dues.

No doubt, their political loyalties have always been "reliably" pro-USA, and many of the missionaries have been developed as intelligence connections. And it's easy to see how an agency like the CIA could insert a few "ringers" into the works. Just as with, say, petroleum engineers, or bankers. David Rockefeller's First National Bank was the top bank in South America for decades. 1st National and Chase had it pretty much locked up for a while there, in fact. Ironically, the capital flight explosion of the 1980s in Latin America eventually led to huge losses for Chase, although, you know, David Rockefeller coped. Who knows, maybe he balanced the books with that same money coming in somewhere else. It would hardly be untypical.

(1st National used to be huge in the USA, too, back in the 1960s. There weren't nearly as many banks back then, in my recollection. Not sure what happened to them, some name change or other, I think maybe at some point they became 1st Interstate?, which eventually got bought by BoA in the 1980s...)

The works of Penny Lernoux are also well worth digging into- although Lernoux doesn't focus on American Protestant missionaries, she was a liberal Roman Catholic who was the Latin American corrspondent for the National Catholic Reporter, and much of her work documents the influence of the RC hierarchy as power players, siding with the traditional oligarchies and eventually involved in countering liberation theology. Her work on the overlap of politics and religion in 20th century Latin America is landmark. Lots of material on the man who became pope, Ratzinger... ... eople.html ... cerpt.html

Another one you don't want to miss is The Nazi Legacy. Especially read the parts about Israeli intelligence involvement with Klaus Barbie, Fritz Schwend, and Otto Skorzeny in Transmaritima Boliviana Lines, in the late 1960s...I still have a hard time wrapping my mind around all that. Nor am I alone, the Klarsfelds were always at least as bewildered by that nexus...
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Postby robert d reed » Sun Sep 02, 2007 2:33 pm

One of the main explicitly outlined themes in Thy Will Be Done is that the increased "involvement" of American governmental, business, and military interests in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century represented a move to divert power not only from the Marxist Left, but from the traditional center of territorial, monetary political power held by the "Latin"-Hispanically oriented Roman Catholic Church in the region, and the latifundia aristocracies affiliated with them. The Protestant missionaries, the American oil companies and investment firms, the Baptist-supporting John D. Rockefeller and his scions, the (at least nominally) predominately "White Anglo-Saxon Protestant" CIA of the Dulles era were all part of the push by the Anglo-American Internationalist Establishment to obtain a "controlling interest" share in the national economies and (still largely untapped) resource troves of Latin America. This push was bound to displace- or replace- the traditional power of the Vatican and the Papacy. But, of course, the Vatican, and the Papacy itself, were increasingly brought into a political accommodation resembling a merger with Anglo-American Establishment during the last 50 years. See US envoy and right-wing political operative Cardinal Spellman; Giovanni Montini, who rose to become Pope Paul VI in 1964- an OSS/CIA asset as early as the 1940s, when he was the personal secretary of Eugenio Pacelli, Pope Pius XII; and the reign, beginning in 1978, of Pope John Paul II, a masterful negotiator who balanced a role as ally of the Anglo-American Internationalists in return for maintaining some degree of autonomy for the institution of the Catholic Church as a power of continuing relevance in the contemporary political world.

Probably the biggest lasting change as the result of all of this is the decline of nacionalismo as a cornerstone of Latin American politics. The traditional code of power in Latin American countries centered around the desire by the traditional land-owning oligarchic dynasties to develop and hoard as much of the productive capacity, resources, and wealth of their nations "in-house" as possible, a stance implicitly hostile to foreign investors. That attitude was breached and transformed in the 1980s. Once assured that their fortunes could be maintained, the oligarchies had little problem with the rise of the "new generation" of "technocrats" and the outside investment of globalist firms, from the USA to China and Korea. Formerly, the oligarchic families of Latin America played a role similar to royal families in medieval times, as regents granted their domains by the authority of the Pope. By the 1980s, they dropped the pretensions of that role, made obsolete by the ingression of secular modernity attendant to economic globalism and political internationalism. In varying degrees in different countries, the oligarchies still maintain their strong influence and political power. But to the extent that they maintain it, it's expressed more as Investment Assets, and less as Land.
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Re: Thy Will Be Done

Postby stillrobertpaulsen » Thu Apr 03, 2014 3:48 pm

I found out about this book about 10 years ago and just now have started to read it. This is excellent Deep History and I'm enjoying as much for the tidbits of trivia I didn't know (President Eisenhower suffered a heart attack in 1955 that nominally left Vice President Nixon in charge, but in actuality had Allen Dulles running the country) as for the details of how various pieces of the Elite puzzle fit together. I'm only 280 pages into this 960 page book, so I hope to give a more complete review later. I just want to quote a particular section that really opened my eyes about Nelson Rockefeller's influence in the intelligence community from pages 263-266:

On March 12, the CIA learned that all covert operations had to be approved first by the National Security Council's Operations Coordinating Board (OCB), on which Nelson was the president's representative. Under Eisenhower's instructions, the National Security Council authorized the CIA to "develop underground resistance and facilitate covert and guerrilla operations."

Specifically, such operations shall include any covert activities related to propaganda, political action, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage...subversion against hostile states and groups including assistance to underground resistance movements, guerrillas and refugee liberations groups, support of indigenous and anti-communist elements...deception plans and operations...all protected by the new doctrine of "plausible" deniability.21

Nelson's Special Group was to oversee all these activities. If there was a philosophical underpinning to this group, it was Machiavelli.
Dulles described all the CIA's covert operations,22 past and present, including those having the most doubtful legality. By 1955, they included the following:

    The CIA's penetration of the National Student Association.

    The CIA's penetration of the news media as intelligence sources, using reporters as spies, planting spies, and spreading false stories ("black propaganda") in the foreign media that were "replayed" in domestic news sources.23

    The CIA's penetration of the American book publishing industry.

    The CIA's support for Ramon Magsaysay in the Philippines and George Papadopoulos in Greece.24

    The CIA's instigation of coups in Iran and Guatemala.

    The CIA;s interception and reading, at New York's and San Francisco's post offices, of the private mail of American citizens sent to and received from the Soviet Union and China.25

    The CIA's financing of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberation (subsequently renamed Radio Liberty) broadcasts to, respectively, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.26

    The CIA's establishment of a Domestic Operations Division, whose organization and functions were similar to a field station abroad, to conduct covert operations against U.S. citizens in American cities. This action violated the CIA's charter, which forbade the agency from spying on American citizens at home.

    The CIA's "Operation Bloodstone," which protected and used Nazis in Europe and the Americas.27

Three other CIA operations, however, would have the most far-reaching implications for Nelson Rockefeller, American missionaries, and the Indians of Latin America: the CIA's expansion of its MKULTRA mind-control experiments, the use of Edward Lansdale's Filipinos to recruit Montagnard tribes in a war against Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh, and to build a new regime in Saigon to create a Korea-like partition of Vietnam, and its growing covert involvement in aviation.

The Rockefeller Foundation funded the sensory deprivation research. The technique involved strapping people down in a large box and cutting them off from light, sound, smells, or touching. In March 1955, HEW's National Institutes of Health began CIA-funded experiments using the technique, minus the practice of freeing subjects when they wanted to be freed. Soon mind-control experiments spread throughout the country, nurtured by funding directed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the head of the Chemical Division of the CIA Technical Services Staff and, according to one former CIA officer, part of the old-boy network in the CIA that included Nelson Rockefeller's former CIAA associate in Brazil, J.C. King, now CIA chief of clandestine activities in the Western Hemisphere.31

During Nelson's chairmanship of the Special Group, the CIA also searched for some means to program assassins. The CA had discovered that a man "could be surreptitiously drugged through the medium of an alcoholic cocktail at a social party...and the subject induced to perform the act of attempting assassination" of an official in a government in which he was "well established socially and politically."34 The CIA officer in charge of security for the operation was Sheffield Edwards.35 Edwards later worked under Edward Lansdale in Operation MONGOOSE, the assassination attempts against Cuba's Fidel Castro.

I haven't even gotten to any chapters directly dealing with the Kennedy administration. Should be interesting to see what other dots connect.
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Re: Thy Will Be Done

Postby Wombaticus Rex » Fri Apr 04, 2014 10:07 am


For God (And the CIA)
The Nation, March 4, 1996
THY WILL BE DONE The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller & Evangelism in the Age of Oil
by Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett
Harper Collins, New York, 1995, $35

by Bill Weinberg

A century ago, the first John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil completed the conquest of the American west. After the Cavalry had pacified the Plains and Rockies, the missionaries had brought the light of civilization--and a new Indian that understood the values of private property, buying and selling. It was thanks to the groundwork laid by the missionaries that the Rockefeller empire had a domesticated leadership to deal with as railroads penetrated Indian territory and vast mineral resources were discovered.

Ironically, Christian fundamentalists saw the Rockefellers, who were sinking money into universities and "modernizing" Protestant institutions, as a sinister force of liberal, urban ways. Even today, the family is thought by many on the radical right to be at the center of the Eastern Liberal conspiracy.

But in THY WILL BE DONE, The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller & Evangelism in the Age of Oil, spanning a century in 960 pages, co-authors Gerard Colby and Charlotte Dennett present the case for the existence of a de facto cooperative arrangement between the Rockefeller empire and the most effective, ambitious and zealous fundamentalist missionary group. The common challenge was the post-World War II pacification of the new frontiers of the developing world--especially the Amazon rainforest.

THY WILL BE DONE charts the interaction of two men: Nelson Rockefeller, John D.'s politically ambitious grandson, and William Cameron (Cam) Townsend, founder and mastermind of America's biggest fundamentalist missionary group, Wycliffe Bible Translators.

Wycliffe, with its affiliated Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) and Jungle Aviation & Radio Service (JAARS), maintains globe-spanning operations and develops the foremost scholars of indigenous languages. In the Amazon and elsewhere, Wycliffe missionaries are sometimes the first to contact remote indigenous peoples--even before the local national government. With cutting-edge linguistic and anthropological work fueled by a millennial vision of having translated the Bible into every tribal tongue on earth by the year 2000, Wycliffe is uniquely skilled in cracking native languages. Ostensibly funded by small donations from supporters, Wycliffe in fact receives grants from private foundations, government agencies, corporations and universities.

The overlapping worlds of government, industry and religion follow each other across the globe as the needs of counterinsurgency, development and saving souls demand: Wycliffe entered the Philippines in the 1950s as the CIA combatted the peasant Huk rebellion, then moved to South Vietnam in the '60s, where the Rockefellers planned a massive development effort around a series of Mekong River hydrodams. But the greatest prize was the vast resources in the continental interior of the traditional US influence sphere, Latin America.

Cam Townsend began as a missionary among the Maya Indians of the Guatemalan highlands in the 1920s, while Rockefeller was directing private disease-eradication efforts in the region. In the 1930s, Townsend launched his own operation and won the heart of Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas, then seeking to break the grip of the Catholic Church over Mexico's Indians. SIL and Wycliffe gained a first Latin beachhead in the revolutionary nationalist Mexico of Cardenas, ironically. But the Mexico operations were only a training ground for Townsend's real destiny--to bring light to the "green hell" of the Amazon, where whole peoples had yet to be "contacted."

Nelson Rockefeller also charted his course to global power through Latin America. In World War II, President Roosevelt appointed him chief of his own office, the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CIAA). After a turf war with Bill Donovan's Office of Strategic Services, Nelson's CIAA won exclusive rights to anti-Axis propaganda and espionage--as well as mapping and securing of vital resources for the war effort--in Latin America. CIAA disease-eradication and education projects were directed to those regions where oil, minerals, rubber and other resources needed to be exploited. But a compliant labor source also needed to be secured. Perhaps underestimating the actual degree of Axis intrigue in Latin America, the authors portray a CIAA that merely used anti-fascism as a cover for suppression of indigenous and labor struggles. Clearly there were such instances--as when striking Indian miners in Bolivia were brutally put down in 1942, at a cost of hundreds of lives.

Nelson also saw his operations in these years as a mere prelude to post-war ambitions. Beyond the mines and oilfields of Mexico and the Andes lay the untapped riches of South America's remote interior--the Amazon.

From these beginnings emerged a web of powerful men moving back and forth from the worlds of Rockefeller foundations and the top levels of government power. Rockefeller companies and ranches penetrated the Amazon as Wycliffe began operations there. Through tortuous routes of universities and foundations, Rockefeller money found its way into Wycliffe operations. So did money from US aid and intelligence agencies.

Rockefeller Brothers Fund analysts would find themselves in the Cabinet and CIA (successor to the wartime OSS) of even such postwar presidents as Kennedy, an open Rockefeller rival. One such analyst and close Nelson crony, Adolf Berle, was ambassador to Brazil during what Colby and Dennett call America's "first Cold War coup"--in October of 1945 against President Getulio Vargas, who sought to nationalize the country's oil. Vargas resurrected the dream upon returning to power in 1950. Four years later, after founding the state oil company Petrobras, he shot himself in the head, leaving behind a suicide note accusing "international economic and financial groups" of undermining his nationalist regime.

Vargas' labor boss, protege and eventual successor Joao Goulart picked up the torch. In the early 1960s, as the US corporate presence in the Amazon burgeoned, Goulart eyed nationalization of Brazil's mineral resources. CIAA veteran-turned-high-level CIA spook JC King was the agency's pointman for the coup against Goulart--launched in 1964, after Nelson's friend Lyndon Johnson had assumed the throne from the dead Kennedy. This second coup ushered in two decades of brutal military dictatorship in Brazil--and made the industrial opening of the Amazon national policy.

As the mines and ranches ate into the jungle, the suddenly-threatened biodiversity itself became an exploited and coveted resource. JC King, a former Johnson & Johnson VP, scoured the rainforest on behalf of his Amazon Natural Drug Company, collecting samples of poisons and hallucinogenic flora and fauna used by Indian hunters and shamans which might have a profitable application in the medical, pharmaceutical or agricultural industries. Secretly, he remained in the pay of the CIA, who received his specimens for their MK-ULTRA mind-control experiments. Contemporary ethnobotany actually owes much to King's efforts and CIA largesse.

Colby and Dennett document the co-optation of academia in the interests of pacification of native peoples resisting industrial encroachment. King was on the scene when the government of Peru, under CIA direction, launched a counter-insurgency drive against the Indian peasants of the Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) in the 1960s, just as the Rockefellers' Standard Oil was moving into the country. Dr. James Perkins, president of New York's Cornell University, was also a director of the Rockefellers' Chase Manhattan Bank and Nelson's International Basic Economy Corporation (IBEC). Under his leadership, Cornell received CIA funds for anthropological and linguistic field programs among Peru's Indians. We can be certain these programs were closely monitored by the agency to streamline the counter-insurgency effort. Cam Townsend's domain was also part of the academia-intelligence network. One Cornell graduate in those years, Donald Burns, would go on to become Wycliffe's top Quechua translator.

The Rockefeller family's own youthful academic indulgences followed the industrial empire's nose. Nelson's son Michael was dispatched to Dutch New Guinea in 1960, ostensibly to collect "primitive art" from the indigenous peoples of the remote rainforest region; simultaneously Standard Oil of New Jersey (later Exxon) won joint mineral exploration rights there with Royal Dutch Shell. Michael was killed by headhunters: by offering a high price for painted human skulls he was encouraging internal warfare, and this was realized by tribal leaders who apparently ordered that his own skull be stripped and painted. But neither Michael's death nor the subsequent annexation of Dutch New Guinea by Indonesia slowed the corporate exploitation of the region. The native peoples there, having lost most of their land, are still fighting the international oil and mineral interests today--including Chevron, western wing of the Rockefeller Chase Manhattan investment empire.

Nelson Rockefeller's IBEC investment network in ranching, oil and minerals fueled the destruction of the Amazon in the 1960s. Colby and Dennett document the massacres, forced relocations and atrocities committed against native peoples in the Amazon by goons in the pay of ranchers and industrial interests in this period. The Brazilian dictatorship's Indian agency was itself coopted into an instrument of counter-insurgency, even firing on Indians.

The backlash finally emerged in the late 1960s and '70s, as urban guerilla movements were spreading from Guatemala to Buenos Aires. Nelson, on a 1969 tour of Latin America on behalf of President Richard Nixon, was met with violent protests in almost every city. Wycliffe, meanwhile, faced accusations of complicity in genocide and CIA intrigues, and was even kicked out of Mexico. Wycliffe's doctrine of hard work, individual salvation and obedience to authority itself came to be seen as a tool of pacification. With its own airfleet and radio network, Wycliffe had virtual autonomy over the remote Indian villages it colonized. Latin Catholic leaders of the emergent Liberation Theology current as well as progressive anthropologists protested Wycliffe's degree of social control in Indian communities--and the organization's silence in the face of atrocities against its flock. At a 1971 hemispheric World Council of Churches conference in Barbados, anthropologists warned that the age of genocide may be just beginning.

Cam Townsend and Nelson Rockefeller are both gone, but Wycliffe carries on its global work, while Nelson's younger brother David of Chase Manhattan is a global advocate of free trade. The embattled Amazon rainforest is but a fourth its former size, and the destruction continues. Democracy has been restored to Brazil, but free trade dogma reigns throughout the hemisphere (save a particular Caribbean island). Everywhere, resources are being privatized. The revolutionary movements of Central America have been beaten back. Satellites scan the jungle floors for mineral deposits.

The final paragraphs of THY WILL BE DONE note the emergence of the Zapatista rebel movement in the Mexican state of Chiapas, where the Wycliffe whiz-kids had cut their teeth in the 1930s. The Lacandon rainforest of Chiapas is where Townsend established a "jungle camp" to train his missionaries for the adventure that lay ahead in the Amazon. This wild frontier--now ravaged by peasant relocation programs, cattle ranches and military and oil operations--is today the stronghold of the Maya Indian guerillas.

Among the most challenging obstacles the Zapatistas faced in forging their movement was the fundamentalist obedience ethic which had taken hold among many Indian families--the legacy of Wycliffe and their cohorts. The divisions between Catholics and evangelical converts has recently been a source of internecine violence among the Maya of Chiapas--which the Zapatistas have condemned.

NAFTA, and the envisioned subsequent carving of the entire hemisphere into interlocking free trade zones, is the final legacy of the Rockefeller project. But the official free trade utopianism that reigned in Washington and Mexico's Federal District was dealt a blow on New Years morning of 1994 as NAFTA took effect. The Zapatistas simultaneously launched their revolt, unequivocally demonstrating that, despite the dismantling of nationalist state structures, despite the fall of Communism, despite the lure of Coca-Cola and MTV, and despite the most desperate of odds--resistance would continue.

As the last barriers between resources and corporate power go down from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, the indigenous peoples who have always stood to lose the most from the relentless march of development continue to find ways to fight back. From the Amazon to Indonesia, indigenous peoples have been reduced from self-sufficiency in their forest homeland to ostracized and despised shanty-town dwellers in the space of a few years. Whole languages and peoples have disappeared. Those which have survived battle hunger, prostitution and disease. Like the Chiapas Maya, Indians in the Amazon are now saying that enough is enough, and organizing against the industrial rape of their lands. The question remains of whether they will find effective allies among those of us who dwell within the industrial system. In one short paragraph in a book overwhelmingly laden with facts, Colby and Dennett conclude by asking whether future generations will accept the destruction of indigenous peoples as God's will--reminding us of our responsibility not to be complicit with genocide through our silence.
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