Fascism was a corporatist ideology that tried a Third Way between the rule of the working class (Bolshevism) and the rule of the rule of the capitalists ("plutocracy"), in which all classes would work together harmoniously under the aegis of a Total State that subsumed everything.
It didn't just mean "right-wing."
Fascism is not an ideology. It's an attitude. It's a perverse kind of aesthetic.
Fascism can't be explained like Marxism. With fascism, we should start with an analysis of the feelings, symbols, and tropes of fascist rhetoric.
It's essentially subrational.
That's not what it meant in 1930. If you start expanding the term to include attitudes, you are redefining it. Might as well redefine socialism as an attitude and call Obama a socialist.
There is no group in the US that Mussolini would look at as an inheritor, I submit.
... I am one of those rare people who has actually read fascist literature, and I say it means what the fascists said it meant.
Yes, I have too, but I really think the emotions are more important than the ideas.
With Communism, first there were the carefully worked out treatises by Marx, Engels, et al, and then the propaganda and aesthetics of Lenin, Stalin, etc.
In Italy, Mussolini developed fascist motifs, slogans, aesthetics, etc before he really worked out the ideology.
The fascist equivalent of the Communist Manifesto, The Doctrine of Fascism, credited to Mussolini but ghostwritten by Giovanni Gentile, was written as late as 1937!
Aha! You're making the mistake!
European Communism does not start with Marx! He was working in the tradition of Fourier and St. Simon. It preceeded the CM by decades. The motifs, slogans, aesthetics, etc were worked out before Marx was born.
Here's the difference.
Communism did not become a seriously powerful movement until Marx and Engels gave it a "scientific' formulation. It was important, but we would barely remember it today were it not for M and K.
The equivalent to M and K are the postwar Nouvelle Droite writers and associated neofascist philosophers. But they come after Mussolini, Hitler, etc.
I suppose the emotions, intuition and so forth will eventually lead to ideas and dogmas. Although It could go the other way.
People have called Christ a socialist, an anarchist, a communist and a libertarian and even a fascist.
When fascism was a respectable ideology didn't it find proponents among FDR and his administration as well as many others, at least early on?
J, fascism found sympathizers (like Keynes) often because in the Depression they thought the fascists had the ability to push through economic changes (while avoiding communism).
As a side note, I take the unpopular position (although it was Arendt's as well) that Nazism and Fascism are really two different animals. It was only Marxist-Leninist ideology that threw them together.
... John Lukacs made that same argument, that Fascism and National Socialism are two different creatures.
... while Fascism and Nazism have similarities, the latter is distinguished by its biologism.